Introduction: After the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, most of the patients undergo surgical ACL reconstruction, which is followed by postoperative physiotherapeutic exercise programs. The efficacy of various exercise programs is not entirely clear. Objectives: To analyse available evidence of the effectiveness of training protocols after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction based on the review of available scientific literature. Methods: The literature was searched within PEDro, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. Only reports of randomized controlled studies published from 2000 to 2016 were considered relevant. Results: Ten studies were included in the final review. One study compared an accelerated to a non-accelerated physiotherapy program, two studies compared early and late introduction of open kinetic chain exercises to the program, three studies compared programs of different types of exercise and four studies evaluated effects of adding specific exercise types to a standard postoperative program. Conclusion: Use of accelerated postoperative physiotherapy program which includes open and closed kinetic chain exercises, progressive eccentric exercise and combination of strengthening and neuromuscular exercises is advised. Decision on return to sport should be based on patient's ability to meet well defined functional criteria.