The use of goat milk has been known to be appreciated due to its specific characteristics. For centuries, such sick people and malnourished children have been treated and nourished with goat milk, which was attributed as »healing«. In recent years, the demand and the interest for goat milk and its dairy products has increased also due to its nutritional effect on human health. In the thesis, we presented the influence and the importance of goat milk in human nutrition. We provided the data on goat milk in the books and scientific literature. We analyzed the literature and presented the scientifically supported information about effect of goat milk on human health. We found that goat milk has many positive effects on human health. Goat milk has high nutrition value and is easier to digest due to sour curd formed in the stomach, because of lower content of αs1-casein and higher content of β-casein. Based on scientifically validated information, we confirmed that goat milk is less allergenic alternative to cow milk due to its different protein structure, namely its casein micelle components, but it could be the suitable substitute only in 30% to 40% of cases. Goat milk also has anti-carcinogenic properties, immunological properties and inhibits the accumulation of cholesterol in the blood.