The function of secondary metabolites is the interaction between a plant and its environment which help the plants to adapt easier and to protect them from pathogen. Capsaicinoids are the most important secondary metabolites in the genus Capsicum. The use of fruit from the genus Capsicum and the capsaicin itself has been increasing over the last decade, especially for medical applications and culinary. In mammals, the ingestion of capsaicinoids gives a burning and unpleasant feeling. The pungency is expressed in Scoville units, which range from 0 to 16 units. Their content in plants is in strong connection with the environment. For the purpose of a bigger production of capsaicinoids, specific technological factors are needed to boost synthesis and their accumulation. Main aspect of how the amount of capsaicinoid can be manipulated is the water regime, that affects activity of capsaicin synthase. Increased enzyme activity can lead up to 2,5 times greater capsaicin content compared to control plant. Beside controlled water irrigation, usage of mineral nitrogen fertilizer or microbiological rich substrate can positively affect capsaicin content. In fact, available nitrogen directly affect capsaicin accumulation as well as microorganisms by increasing activity of plant hormones. Important factor that affect capsaicin synthase is also fotoperiod. Illumination positively affects expression of a gen for capsaicin synthase and negatively the induction of peroxidase, which purpose is decomposition of capsaicin.