The present Master’s thesis seeks to develop a better understanding of a sociological-philosophical contemporary social situation. The thesis critically evaluates Christianity’s position in modern days, in secular or post-secular social context. The main question throughout the thesis is whether Christianity in (post)secular social environment is “victim of its own success”. Ad extra Christianity could be understood as “success” given the fact that its fundamental values were accepted by civil society as its own. That is also the reason why Christianity as the original carrier of these values appears to be no longer needed. Therefore, ad intra Christianity could be understood as “victim”; but as “victim of its own success” because it has enabled the rise of secularism and atheism, both of which want to erase it from the image of contemporary days. This social situation presents a great challenge for contemporary Christianity.
The first part of the thesis focuses on the problematics from the ad extra point of view: Christianity is understood as successful or “success”. The first subsection focuses on the ideas of the Italian philosopher Gianni Vattimo and his views on Christianity; the second subsection presents the ideas of Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor and his views on Christianity. The second part then focuses on the problematics from the ad intra point of view: Christianity is understood as “victim of its own success”. The first subsection presents philosopher David Bentley Hart’s ideas about Christianity. The second subsection focuses on theologian Henri de Lubac’s ideas about atheism. Confronting formerly presented arguments, the thesis concludes with the author’s opinion about the place Christianity has in contemporary days and its future possibilities.