Exosomes are an example of extracellular vesicles involved in intercellular
communication. They play an important role in many biological processes and there is
increasing evidence of their involvement in the pathophysiology of various diseases.
Therefore, they represent a new type of potential diagnostic markers in cancer and also
have great therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. This is mainly due to the
simple extraction of exosomes with minimally invasive procedures. Recent studies
have shown that their network of regulatory activities is implicated in bone
metabolism and metabolic bone diseases. They are also known to play a crucial role in
bone remodeling and regeneration processes after bone fractures. The aim of the thesis
is to present the characteristics of exosomes, their role in bone metabolism and their
potential use in diagnostics and therapy. Many studies show that bone cells
spontaneously secrete exosomes containing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, which
in turn regulate bone resorption and bone formation. Also, exosomes derived from
bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) stimulate bone growth in vivo and in vitro.
Various studies suggest that BMSC- derived exosomes also play an important role in
the development of osteoporosis and can be used to develop new treatment
approaches. Exosomal miRNAs have proven to be suitable diagnostic markers for
osteoporosis with greater sensitivity and specificity compared to the biological
markers currently used in clinical practice. They have also shown that exososmes
derived from stem cells can one day can effectively treat traumatic bone fractures, due
to their properties to act as a bioactive material and potentially improve bone repair.