The paper explores the historical process of translation, which was conducted by Assyrian Christians in the first centuries of Islam. Greek language, culture and sciences were spread in Syria and Mesopotamia from the first centuries onward by Christians who lived there. In Christian monasteries and learning centers like Edessa or Nisibis theology and other sciences, such as medicine, astronomy, and mathematics were taught. In light of Christian science, education and culture, Islam rulers also perceived the need for sciences. This is why they engaged in the process of translation into Arabic. First translations into Arabic were produced from the existing Syriac translations and only later translations were made from Greek originals. This work of translation as well as the process of learning is the example of coexistence of different cultures and religions, which can be the model for encounter or dialogue between religions and different cultures in the global world.