Diabetic retinopathy is a disease that occurs due to poorly handled type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is divided into two subgroups: nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). This disease si characterized by microvascular abnormalities in eye backgroud, which can lead to vision loss. The number of genes that are associated with formation of disease is increasing. According to the disease subtype, three groups of genes are distinguished: genes associated with NPDR, genes associated with PDR and genes reported in association with both forms of the disease. Most frequently researched genes associated with diabetic retinopathy are: VEGFA, AKB1R1 and AGER, but there is still no complete review article covering all the genetic factors involved in the development of the disease. In the present thesis we performed a review of the scientific literature, published between 1981 and 2017 and collected 207 genes associated with the disease in human, rat, mouse, cattle, pig, and dog. Among these genes, 129 were associated with NPDR, 48 with PDR and 30 genes involved in the development of both disease forms. By obtaining this data we developed the most complete catalog of genes associated with DR and/or PDR. For treatment of advanced stages of DR very invasive treatments such as anti-VEGF injections and vitrectomy are used. In order to contribute to the development of new, less invasive and more targeted treatments it is necessary to collect as much information as possible about the genetic background and the onset of the disease, which was also made possible by the collection of genes developed in our literature analysis.