Introduction: The thesis presents physical activity, atherosclerosis which is the world leading cause of cardiovascular diseases and impact of recommended physical activity on atherosclerosis. A large number of cardiovascular and other chronic non-communicable diseases can be prevented with proper action, especially with a healthy lifestyle. Nurses, who spend a lot of time with patients, have an important role. With appropriate expertise they can influence the awareness and attitudes of individuals or groups of people. Purpose: The aim of the thesis is to present on theoretical level the impact of physical activity on atherosclerosis. In addition, we want to determine duration, activities, frequency and intensity of physical activity, which has a positive impact on the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis. Method of work: Method used in this thesis is the descriptive method of studying domestic and foreign literature in mutual COBISS bibliographic base and specialized databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Nursing center. Professional material from the Medical Faculty Library and Logatec Libary were used. When searching the literature the criteria for professional and scientific articles were access to the entire content of the articles in the Slovenian or English language literature published in 2005 or later. Results: With qualitative analysis of the articles we found that regular physical activity reduces impact of risk factors that lead to formation and progression of atherosclerosis and improves function of blood vessels in all age groups. Effectiveness depends on the duration of physical activity and energy consumption. All forms of physical activity are recommended, which should be adapted to the individual's abilities. Discussion and conclusion: Regular physical activity is an important factor in the prevention of atherosclerosis in all ages of human life. The results show that regular physical activity improves the structure and function of the arterial wall, and eliminates risk factors for developing atherosclerosis. In the selection of appropriate physical activity, we should pay attention to psychological as well as physical condition of the individual.