Introduction: Hamstring strain is one of the most common sports-related muscle injuries. The risk of sport injuries increases if the muscles are too short and/ or don't function properly in the case of eccentric contraction. Eccentric exercise is currently the main means of preventing hamstring injuries. Purpose: The purpose of this undergraduate assignment is to analyse the specific effects of eccentric exercise on hamstring strength, based on a review of the scientific literature. Methods: The research was done using online databases (COBISS/OPAC, PubMed and Science Direct). The search criteria included: a randomized controlled studies, published after the year 2000, in either Slovenian or English language, comparing the effects of eccentric exercise on hamstrings with effects of other types of exercise, done on healthy people, with a training programme of at least four weeks and dynamometry assessment or muscle volume measurement as the primary outcome measures. Results: One-hundred and five articles were reviewed. Twenty-one articles reported the effects of eccentric exercise on the hamstring strength. Eight studies conducted between 2003 and 2016 were included in the final review and thoroughly analysed. The results show that eccentric exercise is effective in increasing the strength, flexibility and functional performance of hamstrings. Discussion and conclusion: Literature review has shown that eccentric exercise is safe and beneficial for hamstrings and thus should be added to the sports programme. Additional research with a larger number of participants is needed to further study the effects of eccentric exercise. The most efficient type of eccentric exercise for hamstring improvement is yet to be examined. Additional research is also needed to determine whether eccentric exercise is beneficial for all types and levels of sport and what kind of effects it has in preventing hamstring injury.