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Učinki višinske vadbe na vzdržljivost pri kolesarjenju : magistrsko delo
Lavrenčič, Tine (Avtor), Ušaj, Anton (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

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Izvleček
V magistrski nalogi so predstavljeni rezultati poskusa višinske vadbe, ki je potekal tri tedne na Rogli, kjer so merjenci bivali na simulirani višini v višinskih sobah in vadili na nadmorski višini Rogle. Naloga vsebuje podatke trinajstih preiskovancev, ki so bili razdeljeni na testno (7 preiskovancev) in kontrolno (6 preiskovancev) skupino. Testna skupina je bila med tritedensko vadbo izpostavljena metodi živi visoko - vadi na zmerni nadmorski višini. Preiskovanci v tej skupini so na zmerni hipoksiji (1500m + FiO2 = 0,18 – 0,17) preživeli okrog 14 do 18 ur dnevno. Vadba je potekala na zmerni nadmorski višini 1500m. Kontrolna skupina je bivala in vadila na nizki nadmorski legi. Vadba te skupine je potekala v Ljubljani, na Fakulteti za šport. Obe skupini sta v tritedenskem ciklu opravili 14 treningov po enakem protokolu. Vadba je potekala na kolesih, ki so bila priključena na kolesarske trenažerje. Vsebovala je 5-minutno ogrevanje, nato pa enourno kolesarjenje, med katerim so merjenci kolesarili z največjo možno močjo, ki so jo bili tisti dan sposobni premagati na kolesu. Merjenci obeh skupin so pred in po vadbenem ciklusu opravili testiranja v Laboratoriju za biodinamiko na Fakulteti za šport v Ljubljani. Testiranja so zajemala večstopenjski obremenitveni test in neprekinjen test do utrujenosti. Podatke iz testiranj smo kasneje uporabili za primerjavo učinkov posamezne metode vadbe. Pri skupini, ki je bivala na simulirani nadmorski višini, je bilo opravljenih tudi 5 odvzemov krvi za hematološke raziskave. Skušali smo ugotoviti, kakšen je vpliv hipoksije. Ker smo predvidevali, da vadba na nizki nadmorski legi ne bo vplivala na spremembe v hematoloških kazalcih, pri kontrolni skupini nismo opravili odvzemov krvi. Rezultati kažejo, da se je pri obeh skupinah izboljšala večina funkcionalnih dejavnikov. Statistično značilno je bilo povečanje moči kolesarjenja pri laktatnem pragu, saj smo tako pri testni skupini (p=0,018), kot tudi pri kontrolni skupini (p=0,02) zaznali statistično značilne razlike. Prav tako sta obe skupini povišali svojo moč kolesarjenja pri OBLA-i (testna [p=0,004], kontrolna [p=0,02]). Statistično značilne razlike v maksimalni moči kolesarjenja smo zaznali tako pri kontrolni skupini (p=0,025), kot tudi pri testni skupini (p=0,016). Izboljšanje maksimalnega privzema kisika smo zaznali le pri testni skupini (p=0,04). Pri nobeni skupini nismo zaznali statistično značilnih sprememb v vrednostih laktata pri laktatnem pragu ali OBLA-i, smo pa pri testni skupini zaznali statistično značilne razlike v povišanju maksimalnih vrednostih laktata (p=0,014), medtem ko pri kontrolni skupini kljub povišanju povprečnih vrednosti statistično značilnih razlik nismo zaznali. Hematološki kazalci so pokazali, da se je vsebnost hemoglobina po prihodu na višino najprej občutno zvišala (p=0,00), nato pa se je hitro znižala. Statistično značilnih razlik v vsebnosti hemoglobina med prvim in zadnjim odvzemom, ki se je zgodil teden dni po prihodu z višinske vadbe ni. Opazen je le rahel trend naraščanja, saj je bila vsebnost hemoglobina ob zadnjem merjenju le še za 1,3% višja od povprečne začetne vrednosti. Hematokrit se je iz relativno visoke začetne vrednosti najprej znižal (p=0,016), nato je sledil porast, kasneje pa spet padec. Med vrednostjo hematokrita pred višinsko vadbo in teden dni po višinski vadbi ne prihaja do statistično značilnih razlik, opazen je le rahel trend povišanja hematokrita. Vadba je podobno povečala zmogljivost v obeh skupinah, tako pri kazalcih submaksimalnega napora, kot tudi pri kazalcih maksimalnega napora. Tritedenska višinska vadba po metodi živi visoko – vadi na zmerni nadmorski višini ni prinesla statistično značilnih sprememb v hematoloških kazalcih, katerih posledica bi lahko bila izboljšana zmogljivost.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:vzdržljivost, višinska vadba, hipoksija, aklimatizacija, kolesarjenje
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Tipologija:2.09 - Magistrsko delo
Organizacija:FŠ - Fakulteta za šport
Leto izida:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:5152689 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:831
Število prenosov:632
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:The influence of altitude training on endurance in cycling
Izvleček:
This master thesis presents the results of three-week altitude training, which was performed on Rogla, where the objects lived on simulated altitude in the altitude room. This paper contains the data of 13 subjects, which were divided into experimental group (7 subjects) and control group (6 subjetcs). During the three-week live high - train on moderate altitude, the experimental group was exposed to moderate hypoxia (1500m + FiO2= 0,18 – 0,17) for 14 to 18 hours per day. Training took place at a moderate altitude of 1500m. Control group was training and living at low altitude location. Trainings of this group took place in Ljubljana at the Faculty of Sport. In the three-week training cycle, both groups followed the same training protocol. Training was performed on bicycle, which were connected to the cycling training simulators. Training included five minutes of warm-up and one hour of cycling with as much power as the subject was able to develop that day on the bike. The subjects of both groups were tested before and after three-week training on incremental test and continuous test. These tests were performed in Laboratory of biodynamics at the Faculty of Sport in Ljubljana. We used the results of these tests to compare the performance of each group – of each training method. We also took 5 blood samples from experimental group for determination of hematological changes. We did not take blood samples of the control group, because we considered that the exercise at low altitude will not have any influence on blood changes. The results show that the most functional factors were improved by both groups. A statistically significant improvement in power of cycling at lactate threshold was observed in the test group (p=0.018), as well as in the control group (p=0.02). Both groups also increased their power cycling at OBLA (experimental [p=0.004] and the control [p=0.02]). Statistically significant differences in the peak power of cycling was also detected in both groups (control, [p=0.025], experimental [p=0.016]). Improved maximum oxygen consumption was observed only in the experimental group (p=0.04). We did not observed significant changes in the levels of lactate at the lactate threshold, or at OBLA in any group, but we found a statistically significant difference in the increase of the maximum value of lactate in experimental group (p=0.014), while in the control group, despite the increase of the average value of the statistically significant differences were not detected. Hematologic parameters showed that after arriving at the altitude, hemoglobin started significantly increasing, but then it decreased rapidly. Statistically significant was the increase in hemoglobin after two weeks staying at the high altitude (p=0.00), but there was no significant changes in the levels of hemoglobin between first and last measurement, which took place a week after the arrival from altitude training. There was only a slight trend of increasing hemoglobin, because we noticed 1.3% higher average value of hemoglobin compared to the average of the initial value. Hematocrit was first reduced from a relatively high initial value (p=0.016), then followed by an increase and then decreased again, which is probably due to the fatigue of the subjects. Between hematocrit values before altitude training and values measured one week after the arrival from altitude training, there are no statistically significant differences. Only a slight increases in hematocrit were observed. The training had similar influence in both groups. Both indicators of submaximal effort, as well as indicators of maximum effort were improved. A three-week altitude training method live high - train at moderate altitude did not show any statistically significant changes in hematologic indicators, which could have influence in the improved performance of experimental group.

Ključne besede:endurance, altitude training, hipoxia, aclimatization, cycling

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