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Predstave predšolskih otrok o živalskem skeletu : diplomsko delo
Debenec, Damjana (Avtor), Kos, Marjanca (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

URLURL - Predstavitvena datoteka, za dostop obiščite http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/3658/ Novo okno

Izvleček
Otrok začne pridobivati spoznanja o zgradbi svojega telesa in njegovem delovanju že v zgodnjem otroštvu. Od naivnih predstav prehaja do naravoslovnega znanja, ki ga postopoma izgrajuje v svojih izkušnjah. V diplomskem delu sem raziskovala predstave 5–6 let starih otrok o skeletu človeka in drugih živali. Ugotavljala sem tudi, koliko znanja o zgradbi in delovanju skeletov lahko otroci pridobijo ob dejavnostih, ki temeljijo na neposredni izkušnji in aktivnem učenju. Izvedla sem kvazieksperiment s kontrolno in z eksperimentalno skupino; vsaka je imela 19 otrok. Predstave otrok sem ugotavljala s polstrukturiranimi individualnimi intervjuji. Intervju je vseboval 10 vprašanj o zgradbi in delovanju skeleta pri človeku in drugih živalih; na dve vprašanji so otroci odgovarjali z risbo. Natančnost predstav, prikazanih z risbo, sem ovrednotila s pomočjo ocenjevalne lestvice, izdelane v predhodnih raziskavah. V začetnih intervjujih sem ugotavljala začetne predstave otrok v obeh skupinah. Otroci eksperimentalne skupine so nato sodelovali v projektu spoznavanja skeleta. Cilj dejavnosti je bil, da otroci s čim več neposredne izkušnje ter na aktiven način spoznavajo in doživljajo različne živali ter pridobijo znanje o raznolikosti zgradbe različnih živali s poudarkom na poznavanju raznolikosti njihovega skeleta. V projektu so otroci izkušenjsko spoznavali okostje človeka in nekaterih drugih vretenčarjev (mačke, ptiča in ribe), goveje in piščančje kosti, zunanje skelete členonožcev (žuželk, rakov in pajkov) in mehkužcev (polža in sipe). Otroci so spoznavali tudi živali brez trdnih skeletnih elementov (deževnika in meduzo). V kontrolni skupini teh dejavnosti nismo izvajali. Po končanih dejavnostih sem individualne ustne intervjuje, ki so vsebovali ista vprašanja kot začetni intervjuji, ponovila v obeh skupinah – eksperimentalni in kontrolni. Rezultate začetnih in končnih intervjujev v obeh skupinah sem primerjala in na tej osnovi ugotovila, koliko znanja so otroci eksperimentalne skupine pridobili ob dejavnostih. Rezultati so pokazali, da so bile začetne predstave 5–6 let starih otrok o skeletu precej površne; večina otrok kosti ni navedla kot nekaj, kar imajo v telesu; večina o vlogi in videzu kosti v našem telesu ni imela ustrezne predstave; tudi njihove risbe so večinoma odražale samo površne predstave o človeškem skeletu. Večina otrok je vedela, da imajo skelet tudi živali, vendar so bile predstave tudi o teh skeletih skromne. Po opravljenih dejavnostih pa se je pri otrocih eksperimentalne skupine poznavanje zgradbe in delovanja skeleta različnih organizmov bistveno izboljšalo; vsi otroci so kosti navedli kot nekaj, kar imajo v telesu; o vlogi in videzu kosti v našem telesu je imela večina otrok natančno predstavo; tudi risbe večine otrok so odražale natančne predstave o človeškem telesu. Prav tako so rezultati pokazali, da imajo otroci ustrezno predstavo o tem, da imajo tudi živali skelet, te predstave pa so postale popolnejše. Rezultati končnih intervjujev v kontrolni skupini se niso bistveno razlikovali od začetnih. Ugotavljam, da se lahko predšolski otroci ob dejavnostih, primernih njihovi razvojni stopnji, ki vključujejo veliko neposredne izkušnje, na aktiven način učijo o zgradbi in delovanju človeškega skeleta in drugih živalskih skeletov. Pridobljeno znanje jim daje osnovo za razumevanje raznolikosti organizmov, kar je lahko tudi eden izmed temeljev pozitivnega odnosa do živega.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:začetno naravoslovje, skelet, aktivno učenje
Vrsta gradiva:Diplomsko delo/naloga (mb11)
Tipologija:2.11 - Diplomsko delo
Organizacija:PEF - Pedagoška fakulteta
Leto izida:2016
Založnik:[D. Debenec]
Št. strani:78 str.
UDK:373.2.016:591.471(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:11134025 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:514
Število prenosov:42
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
 
Skupna ocena:(0 glasov)
Vaša ocena:Ocenjevanje je dovoljeno samo prijavljenim uporabnikom.
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Preschool children's ideas about animal skeleton
Izvleček:
Children start acquiring knowledge on their body structure and its functioning already at an early age. A gradual transition from their naive perceptions towards the knowledge of natural sciences takes place through their experiences. My diploma work studies concepts children of 5–6 years of age have on the skeleton of human beings and animals. I examined how much knowledge on the structure and functioning of skeletons children can obtain through activities, based on direct experiencing and active learning. A quasi-experiment with a control and an experimental group was carried out, each consisting of 19 children. Children's perceptions were established with half-structured individual interviews. An interview included 10 questions on the structure and functioning of skeleton in man and animals; children answered two of these questions with drawings. Exactness of their perceptions, evident in drawings, were evaluated by way of a values scale, defined in previous research. In both groups, initial interviews were used to determine the children's starting perceptions. The children of the experimental group then participated in the project, learning about skeleton. The goal of the activity was for the children to get the most direct experience possible and actively to get to know various animals, thus acquiring knowledge on varied structures of different animals. Emphasis was given to get familiar with the diversity of their skeletons. The children in the project thus acquired experiential knowledge on the skeleton of a human and some other vertebrates (cat, bird and fish), on cow and chicken bones, the exoskeletons of arthropods (insects, crayfish and spiders) and molluscs (snails and cuttlefish). Children also learned about animals without solid skeleton elements (earthworms and jellyfish). These activities were omitted in the control group. Having finished the activities, I repeated individual oral interviews that consisted of the same questions as the initial ones in both, the experimental and the control group. The results of initial and final interviews in both groups were compared and on this basis a conclusion on how much knowledge the experimental group children acquired during these activities was drawn. The results show that the initial perceptions of skeleton by the children of 5–6 years were quite superficial; most children failed to mention a bone as something they have in their bodies; mostly they had an improper notion of the role and the look of bones in our body; their drawings reflected only superficial ideas on human skeleton. Most children knew that animals also had skeletons, but their perceptions of these skeletons were modest. After the activities had been completed, the children of the experimental group had essentially better knowledge regarding the structure and functioning of skeleton in various organisms; all children mentioned bones as something they had in their bodies; most of them had an exact notion about the role and the look of bones in our body; most children's drawings also reflected precise ideas on the human body. Results also demonstrated correct children's perceptions about animals having skeletons as well, and these perceptions became more complete. The results of final interviews in the control group show no essential differences in comparison to the initial ones. My conclusion is that, through activities adapted to their development stage and involving extensive direct experiences, preschool children can actively learn the structure and function of human and other animal skeletons. Their acquired knowledge presents a basis for understanding the diversity of organisms, possibly underpinning a positive attitude towards the living environment.

Ključne besede:initial natural sciences

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