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Prilagajanje pouka slovenščine učencem prvega razreda, ki že znajo brati : magistrsko delo
Grdadolnik, Špela (Avtor), Bešter, Marja (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

URLURL - Predstavitvena datoteka, za dostop obiščite http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/3531/ Novo okno

Izvleček
Pismenost je ena temeljnih zmožnosti ljudi, ki z vidika raznih področij olajšuje vključenost posameznikov v družbo (Pečjak, 2010). A doseganje vsestransko razvite pismenosti, še posebej bralne pismenosti, je dolgotrajen proces, ki sistematično poteka od rojstva otroka do konca njegovega šolanja (Grosman, 2007). Otrok tako lahko v spodbudnem domačem in vrtčevskem okolju že v predšolskem obdobju razvije predbralne spretnosti in sposobnosti ter zaradi sistematično spodbujenega razvoja bralne pismenosti ob vstopu v šolo že bere. To pomeni, da ima že do določene stopnje razviti potrebni sposobnosti, kot sta dekodiranje in bralno razumevanje, ki bralca pripeljeta do cilja ─ do fleksibilnega pristopa k branju (Pečjak, 1999). Pri nekaterih učencih učenje branja torej ni nekaj, s čimer pričenjamo šele z učenčevim vstopom v šolo, ampak je proces, ki ga tedaj le intenzivneje in sistematičneje razvijamo naprej od točke, ki je bila že dosežena (Pečjak, Potočnik, 2011). Učni načrt za slovenščino (Program, 2011b) na omenjenem področju opredeljuje sledečo učiteljevo nalogo, in sicer, da ves čas preverja stopnjo razvitosti bralne pismenosti, da sistematično, diferencirano in individualizirano izvaja učno delo ter da spodbuja optimalen razvoj slednjega pri vseh učencih. V izvedeni raziskavi sem torej preverjala, ali se učitelji držijo omenjenih zahtev iz učnega načrta tudi pri učencih, ki v prvem razredu že znajo brati. V ta namen sem obiskala dvajset oddelkov prvega razreda osnovne šole v Ljubljani in njeni okolici ter v njih z branjem besedila izvedla individualno preverjanje stopnje razvoja bralne pismenosti in s tem prepoznala učence, ki že znajo brati. Sledilo je opazovanje (z udeležbo) načina poučevanja dveh ur slovenščine (jezikovni in književni del), pri čemer sem se osredotočila na morebitno prilagajanje učnega dela omenjenim učencem. Svoje izvajanje raziskave v posameznem oddelku sem zaključila z intervjujem z učenci, ki že znajo brati, in z intervjujem z učiteljem. Podatke posameznega razreda, pridobljene z različnimi raziskovalnimi tehnikami, sem med seboj primerjala in z oblikovanimi ugotovitvami dobila vpogled, kakšno je stanje prilagajanja pouka slovenščine prvošolcem, ki že znajo brati, v posameznem oddelku. Ugotovila sem, da je delež otrok, ki ob vstopu v osnovno šolo že berejo, tretjinski ter da imajo ti bralci doma spodbudno bralno okolje, ki je pripomoglo k oblikovanju njihove notranje bralne motivacije oz. oblikovanju bralnega interesa. Na predstavljeno niso posebej pozorni razredniki oddelkov prvega razreda in velika večina jih teh vedenj ne upošteva pri poučevanju. Tako ne poskrbijo za optimalen bralni razvoj prvošolcev, ki že berejo. Preverjanja, na kateri stopnji razvoja bralne pismenosti so učenci, dosledno ne izvajajo. Učnega dela pri pouku slovenščine učencem bralcem ne prilagajajo in prednje ne postavljajo bralnih izzivov ter jih ne spodbujajo k nadaljnjemu razvoju bralne zmožnosti. Učenci bralci morajo tako počakati ostale sošolce, da jih v branju dohitijo in šele nato so tudi oni spodbujeni k nadaljnjemu razvoju bralne pismenosti. Omenjeno čakanje le malo učencev občuti kot dolgočasen in nemotivacijski del pouka. Vsi pa se radi pohvalijo, kako so doma nevsiljivo spodbujeni k branju različnega gradiva. Z željo, da bi učenci v prihodnje enako povedali tudi za šolsko okolje ter da bi učitelje spodbudila k prilagajanju učnega dela v sklopu razvoja bralne pismenosti tudi za učence, ki v prvem razredu že znajo brati, sem napisala sledeče magistrsko delo.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:bralna pismenost, predbralne spretnosti in sposobnosti, notranja diferenciacija in individualizacija, individualni načrt opismenjevanja
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Tipologija:2.09 - Magistrsko delo
Organizacija:PEF - Pedagoška fakulteta
Leto izida:2016
Založnik:[Š. Grdadolnik]
Št. strani:149 str.
UDK:373.32.016:003(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:11063113 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:387
Število prenosov:93
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
 
Skupna ocena:(0 glasov)
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Adapting lessons of Slovene for the first year pupils who can read
Izvleček:
Literacy is one of the basic abilities of people, which is reliving integrational of individuals in society through different point of view (Pečjak, 2010). However, achieving broadly developing literacy, especially reading literacy, is long-term process, which is proceeding from child’s birth to the end of his schooling systematically (Grosman, 2007). The child could develop pre-reading abilities and skills in preschool period at stimulative domestic environment and at kindergarten and consequently the child is already reading at beginning of schooling because of systematically stimulative development of reading literacy. That means he has already developed needed abilities to some level as it decoding and reading understanding, which led the reader to the goal – variable approach towards reading (Pečjak, 1999). For some pupils learning to read is not something we start with at pupil’s beaging of schooling, but it is a process, which is being developed intensively and systematically from already achieved level forward (Pečjak, Potočnik, 2011). Syllabus for Slovenian language (Program, 2011b) is defining the teacher’s task at researched field, which is checking the achieved level of reading literacy constantly, performing teaching tasks systematically, differentially and individually and encouraging optimal develop of reading literacy for all pupils. The main research question of the research I made was if the teachers are following the demands written in syllabus even for a pupils, who already know how to read in first grade. I visited twenty first grades at primary schools in Ljubljana and surroundings whit this aim and there I checked level of reading literacy with individually test, which included reading of short text. This test help me at recognizing the pupils, who already know how to read. The next step was observation (with participation) of manner of teaching two hours of Slovenian language (part of grammar and part of literature). Here I focused if there are some adjustments of teaching tasks to the pupils, who already read. The research in each grade was ended with interviews with pupils, who read already and the interview with teacher. The information gained with different research methods were compared among each other’s and research findings showed us the complete scene of adjustment of Slovenian language lectures to first grade pupils, who already know how to read, in individual class. I found that share of children, who already read at beginning of their schooling, is one third. These readers have stimulative reading environment at home, which is helped at formation of their inside motivation or formation of reading interest. Class teachers are not paying special attention to problem I researched and most of the teachers do not comply with reading literacy of pupils during lecturing the classes. They are not taking care of optimum reading development of first grade pupils, who already read. Test, which shows us the level of reading literacy of pupil, are not performed consistently. Learning tasks at Slovenian language class are not adjusted to "pupils readers". There is no situated any reading challenges for them and pupils readers are not stimulated to further development of reading ability. They have to wait the other schoolmates to reach their reading abilities and only then pupils readers are stimulated to further development of reading literacy too. Just a few pupils denote this time while they are waiting as a boring and not motivational part of the class. However, all pupils like to pride oneself how are stimulated unobtrusively to reading different reading material at home. This master thesis is written with a wish to encourage teachers to adjust the way of lecturing as a part of development of reading literacy for the pupils, who know how to read in the first grade and that pupils could say they learn their abilities in stimulative school environment.

Ključne besede:reading literacy

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