There are two tendencies inherent in Japanese society - a part of changes is directed toward characteristics of Western societies and a part of changes still reflects Japanese uniqueness. Judging the changes (of every and not only) Japanese society from the perspective of convergence and divergence theory, seems to be useful - supposing that we are opened for the arguments ofboth sides. The benefit is in the fact that both sides emphasise a part of the characteristics, and when we recognise both sides, we can easier take up apoint of view. However, we have to take into account that every theory, whether the convergence theory, which emphasises the role of market and competition or the divergence theory, which emphasises the role of institutions, reflects values, ideology and even methodological and disciplinary orientation and biases of their formers, followers and defenders.The importance of convergence theory is in the constant reminding ofthe great importance of the market competition and market logic in economy, as well as in the politics and other social areas. Today, a great deal of world-wide events, especially economical ones, cannot be understood with emphasising only institutions and neglecting market. On the other hand, the importance of divergence defenders, who claim that Japanese society is not changing essentially, is in calling attention to the lastingness and persistence of habits, policies, patterns of behaviour and agency. However, their weakness is in neglecting and underestimating market, competition power and market demands. It is hardly believable that initiated relations and long lasting convictions can change and be forgotten overnight.