Comparative analysis of applicable Slovenian legislation governing the protection of animals used for scientific purposes with Directive 2010/63/EU has been conducted. The European Union Member States are required to transpose the relevant Directive into their respective legislation by November 10, 2012 at the latest, and to begin the application thereof as of January 1, 2013. Directive 2010/63/EU is based on the requirement for strict observation of the 3R principles, i.e. the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement in breeding, keeping and use of animals in procedures. The paper presents in relevant tables the comparison of applicable provisions in the Slovenian law with the novelties laid down in Directive 2010/63/EU, which will need to be incorporated into the legal order of the Republic of Slovenia. In addition, tables show optional provisions in Directive 2010/63/EU which, however, are not necessary to be incorporated into the legal order of the Republic of Slovenia. The currently applicable provisions that may be retained in the legal order of the Republic of Slovenia, as they are ensuring a higher level of protection of animals intended for use in experimental procedures are included as well.