Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) : a useful spectroscopic tool in pharmacy for the study of polymorphism
ID Trontelj, Zvonko (Author), ID Pirnat, Janez (Author), ID Jazbinšek, Vojko (Author), ID Lužnik, Janko (Author), ID Srčič, Stanko (Author), ID Lavrič, Zoran (Author), ID Beguš, Samo (Author), ID Apih, Tomaž (Author), ID Žagar, Veselko (Author), ID Seliger, Janez (Author)

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Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) spectroscopy has been known for 70 years. It is suitable for the study of measured (poly)crystalline chemical compounds containing quadrupole nuclei (nuclei with spin I ≥ 1) where the characteristic NQR frequencies represent the fingerprints of these compounds. In several cases, $^{14}$N NQR can distinguish between the polymorphic crystalline phases of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). In order to further stimulate $^{14}$N NQR studies, we review here several results of API polymorphism studies obtained in Ljubljana laboratories: (a) In sulfanilamide, a clear distinction between three known polymorphs (α, β, γ) was demonstrated. (b) In famotidine, the full spectra of all seven different nitrogen positions were measured; two polymorphs were distinguished. (c) In piroxicam, the $^{14}$N NQR data helped in confirming the new polymorphic form V. (d) The compaction pressure in the tablet production of paracetamol, which is connected with linewidth change, can be used to distinguish between producers of paracetamol. We established that paracetamol in the tablets of six different manufacturers can be identified by $^{14}$N NQR linewidth. (e) Finally, in order to get an extremely sensitive $^{14}$N NQR spectrometer, the optical detection of the $^{14}$N NQR signal is mentioned.

Keywords:NQR, Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance spectroscopy, $^{14}$N NQR, relaxation, drug polymorphism, crystal polymorphism, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), powder mixture quantification, NQR with optically pumped magnetometer
Work type:Article
Typology:1.02 - Review Article
Organization:FFA - Faculty of Pharmacy
FE - Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Publication status:Published
Publication version:Version of Record
Number of pages:22 str.
Numbering:Vol. 10, iss. 6, art. 450
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-133626 This link opens in a new window
ISSN on article:2073-4352
DOI:10.3390/cryst10060450 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:17705475 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:06.12.2021
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Shortened title:Crystals
COBISS.SI-ID:36677893 This link opens in a new window


License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:01.06.2020


Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:P2-0250
Name:Metrologija in biometrični sistemi

Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:J7-9704
Name:JKR – nedekstruktivna metoda za študij in spremljanje polimorfizma v heterogenih farmacevtskih sistemih

Funder:EC - European Commission
Funding programme:FP7
Project number:261670
Name:Counterfeit Pharmaceuticals Interception using Radiofrequency Methods in Realtime

Funder:Other - Other funder or multiple funders
Funding programme:MORS
Project number:RR−07−011

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