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Contribution of drinking water softeners to daily phosphate intake in Slovenia
ID Jereb, Gregor (Avtor), ID Poljšak, Borut (Avtor), ID Eržen, Ivan (Avtor)

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Izvleček
The cumulative phosphate intake in a typical daily diet is high and, according to several studies, already exceeds recommended values. The exposure of the general population to phosphorus via drinking water is generally not known. One of the hidden sources of phosphorus in a daily diet is sodium polyphosphate, commonly used as a drinking water softener. In Slovenia, softening of drinking water is carried out exclusively within the internal (household) drinking water supply systems to prevent the accumulation of limescale. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sodium phosphates in the drinking water in Slovenia in different types of buildings, to determine residents’ awareness of the presence of chemical softeners in their drinking water, and to provide an exposure assessment on the phosphorus intake from drinking water. In the current study, the presence of phosphates in the samples of drinking water was determined using a spectrophotometric method with ammonium molybdate. In nearly half of the samples, the presence of phosphates as water softeners was confirmed. The measured concentrations varied substantially from 0.2 mg PO$_4$/L to 24.6 mg PO$_4$/L. Nearly 70% of the respondents were not familiar with the exact data on water softening in their buildings. It follows that concentrations of added phosphates should be controlled and the consumers should be informed of the added chemicals in their drinking water. The health risks of using sodium polyphosphate as a drinking water softener have not been sufficiently investigated and assessed. It is highly recommended that proper guidelines and regulations are developed and introduced to protect human health from adverse effects of chemicals in water intended for human consumption.

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Ključne besede:drinking water, softening, polyphosphates, exposure assessment
Vrsta gradiva:Članek v reviji (dk_c)
Tipologija:1.01 - Izvirni znanstveni članek
Organizacija:ZF - Zdravstvena fakulteta
Leto izida:2017
Status objave pri reviji:Objavljeno
Verzija članka:Založnikova različica članka
Št. strani:10 str.
Številčenje:Vol. 14, iss. 10, art. 1186
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-131012 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
UDK:614.777:661.635.68
ISSN pri članku:1660-4601
DOI:10.3390/ijerph14101186 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
COBISS.SI-ID:5316971 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Datum objave v RUL:21.09.2021
Število ogledov:245
Število prenosov:80
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
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Gradivo je del revije

Naslov:International journal of environmental research and public health
Skrajšan naslov:Int. j. environ. res. public health
Založnik:MDPI
ISSN:1660-4601
COBISS.SI-ID:1818965 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

Licence

Licenca:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Priznanje avtorstva 4.0 Mednarodna
Povezava:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.sl
Opis:To je standardna licenca Creative Commons, ki daje uporabnikom največ možnosti za nadaljnjo uporabo dela, pri čemer morajo navesti avtorja.
Začetek licenciranja:06.10.2017

Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:pitna voda, mehčanje vode, polifosfati, ocena izpostavljenosti

Projekti

Financer:EC - European Commission
Program financ.:European Social Fund

Financer:Drugi - Drug financer ali več financerjev
Program financ.:Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of the Republic of Slovenia
Številka projekta:322/2012

Financer:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije
Številka projekta:P3-0388
Naslov:Mehanizmi varovanja zdravja

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