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Terapevtski potencial ajavaske: podporni vidiki in samozaznane spremembe
Cehnar, Anja (Avtor), Žvelc, Gregor (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

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Izvleček
Zanimanje za raziskovanje zdravljenja duševnih motenj s pomočjo psihedelikov kot orodij v psihoterapiji ponovno narašča. Eden izmed psihedelikov je ajavaska, DMT-vsebujoč zvarek iz dveh raslin, ki ga ljudstva Amazonije že tisočletja uporabljajo v obrednem kontekstu za duhovne in zdravstvene namene. Zaradi naraščanja popularnosti tega psihedelika širom sveta, smo izvedli kvalitativno študijo retrospektivnih poročanj doživljanja pomenljive obredne izkušnje z ajavasko. Cilj raziskave je bil bolje razumeti podporne vidike samozaznane terapevtske izkušnje z ajavasko ter samozaznane spremembe v simptomih depresije in psihičnem blagostanju. Izmed kandidatov, ki smo jih pridobili preko javnih pozivov v različnih skupinah na temo ajavaske na socialnem omrežju, smo v raziskavo vključili sedem posameznikov (pet žensk in dva moška), od tega štiri Američane, dva Kanadčana in eno Kolumbijko. Udeleženci so bili stari od 21 do 57 let, višje izobraženi in so tekoče govorili angleško. Izpolnili so Vprašalnik o depresiji ter sodelovali v polstrukturiranih intervjujih, ki smo jih izvedli preko video klica. Intervjuje smo analizirali v metodoloških okvirjih utemeljene teorije. Kvalitativna študija je pokazala, da je za samozaznano transformativno izkušnjo z ajavasko pomembno, da so bile osebe pred obredom pripravljene na spremembe. Znotraj doživljanja med obredom je bilo podporno spremenjeno stanje zavesti, ki so ga zaznamovale vizije in slišanje glasov, vezane na stvarni in nestvarni svet. Stanje spremenjene zavesti je spodbudilo psihološke procese spremembe, kot so doživljanje telesnih senzacij, poglobljeno čustvovanje, uvidi, korektivne izkušnje ter podoživljanje in predelava travmatskih spominov. Ker so izkušnjo pogosto doživljali kot težko, je bilo pomembno tudi njihovo zaznavanje podpore in s tem povezan občutek varnosti. Zlasti pomembna za spremembe so se izkazala mistična doživljanja posameznikov, ki so jih zaznamovali občutki obstoja »nečesa več«. V splošnem so vsi udeleženci zaznavali izboljšanje simptomatike depresije ter pozitivne spremembe na področjih psihičnega blagostanja, ki so bile najmočnejše v prvih tednih po obredu. Nekaj udeležencev je poročalo o intenzivnem in hitrem izboljšanju duševnega stanja takoj po obredu. Predpostavljamo, da so bili samozaznani terapevtski učinki ajavaske odvisni od psiholoških procesov sprememb, ki so nastali kot posledica sinergističnega delovanja farmakologije substance ter konteksta, v katerem so substanco zaužili. Za naš vzorec je bila ajavaska katalist za terapevtske procese.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:ajavaska, psihedelična izkušnja, doživljanje, depresija, blagostanje
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Organizacija:FF - Filozofska fakulteta
Leto izida:2021
Število ogledov:148
Število prenosov:37
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
 
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Therapeutic potential of ayahuasca: helpful aspects and self-perceived changes
Izvleček:
Interest in research into the treatment of mental disorders with the help of psychedelics as tools in psychotherapy is once again on the rise. One of the psychedelics is ayahuasca, a DMT-containing brew made from two plants and used by the people of the Amazon for thousands of years in a ritual context for spiritual and health purposes. Due to the growing popularity of this psychedelic around the world, we conducted a qualitative study of retrospective reports of meaningful ritual experiences with ayahuasca. The aim of the study was to better understand the helpful aspects of the self-perceived therapeutic experience with ayahuasca and the self-perceived changes in symptoms of depression and mental well-being. Among the candidates that we obtained through public calls in various ayahuasca groups on the social network, we included seven individuals (five women and two men), of whom four were Americans, two Canadians, and one Colombian. Participants ranged in age from 21 to 57, were highly educated, and were fluent in English. They completed the Depression Questionnaire and participated in semi-structured interviews conducted through a video call. We analyzed the interviews within the methodological framework of grounded theory. The qualitative results have shown that a helpful aspect for a self-perceived transformative experience with ayahuasca is preparedness for change before the ceremony. During the ceremony, a helpful aspect was the altered state of consciousness marked by visions and voices representing real world as well as imaginary content. The altered state of consciousness promoted psychological processes of change, such as experiencing bodily sensations, deepened emotions, insights, corrective experiences, and trauma memory reliving and processing. Because experiences were often difficult, participants’ recognition of support was also regarded as a helpful aspect. Particularly important for change were the mystical experiences of individuals marked by spiritual insights. In general, all participants perceived an improvement in depression symptoms and positive changes in areas of mental well-being that were the strongest felt in the weeks after the ceremony. Some participants reported an intense and rapid improvement in mental state after the ritual. We hypothesize that the self-perceived therapeutic effects of ayahuasca depended on the psychological processes of change that were triggered by the synergistic action of the substance’s pharmacology and the context in which it was ingested. For our sample, ayahuasca was a catalyst for therapeutic processes.

Ključne besede:ayahuasca, psychedelic experience, lived experience, depression, well-being

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