Introduction: Hand hygiene as a science of health is one of the basic medical sciences, which deals with the study of various effects on human health and gives instructions for it´s strengthening. Different methods of sampling can be used to prove hand hygiene swab, imprint, rinse. The presence of bacteria and their species can then be demonstrated on different media. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine which method of sampling period is the most effective and us in the most obvious way to display dates contamination with bacteria. Whether the result of microbiological hand testing depends at all on the method of sampling. Do the employees of retirement home in Idrija still have a lot of bacteria on their hands after the shift, despite regular washing and disinfection of their hands? Transmission of nosocomial infections (MRSA / ESBL) by hand. Methods: We used a descriptive method to prepare the diploma thesis and performed an empirical study. The first part of the study (pilot study) was performed at the Faculty of Medicine in Ljubljana. We sampled the hands of first-year nursing students in three different ways, namely swabs, prints and rinsing. We performed the procedures on 29 students. The second part of the study was performed in retirement home in Idrija. There, we took the handprints of two different media outlets from employees who were in contact with the residents at home. By fingerprinting, we searched for these two types of resistant bacteria with selective media for MRSA and ESBL.Results: In the first part of the study, we found that the most successful way of sampling hands is by fingerprint. At rinsing, the number of bacteria was mostly innumerable, so we had to dilute the sample with saline. Based on the first study, we decided to perform fingerprints at DSO Idrija. Two samples were positive at ESBL and none at MRSA. Discussion and conclusion: The most effective method of hand sampling is the handprint, and the most accurate result is given by washing with a wash. The hand hygiene of the employees of DSO Idrija is very good. Of the 162 samples were infected at the hospital ESBL positive two samples for MRSA none.