We live in an age when technology is a key part of our lives. Fast technological development has brought human race into the age of inventions, innovations and advances in all fields. One of the main contemporary topics is artificial intelligence, its use and its impact in autonomous cars. The Diploma Dissertation is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of the artificial intelligence at the autonomous vehicles. In the first part I gave the general definition of artificial intelligence, short artificial intelligence development history, differences between weak and strong artificial intelligence, what artificial intelligence is nowadays and areas in which it is applied. In the second part the Dissertation focuses more on analysis of the autonomous vehicles. I analysed the influence of the autonomous vehicles and presented their positive and negative effects. I also presented the historical development of the autonomous vehicles, the paradigms of intelligent vehicle, the level of the autonomy of the vehicles, keys or more precisely the foundations of the autonomous vehicles, the key differences among self-driving, autonomous, intelligent and smart vehicles. There I presented three models of autonomous vehicles and their basic characteristics and development.