The thesis focuses on new aspects of human evolution and paleogenetic. Human evolution cannot be presented in a line, but more like a bush with a lot of intertwining and dead branches. (Paleo)genetics can help us explain our origin and battle illnesses and deformities in the near future. Paleogenetics will also be able to perfect archaeological interpretations and demographic or epidemiological research of past populations.Today we only have two complete genomes of extinct hominins: Neanderthal and Denisovan. We also know, that these two subspecies interbred with each other and with anatomically modern humans. The thesis also focuses on the consequences of interbreeding between Neanderthals, Dneisovans and modern humans, and how the genes are expressing today. When interpreting these consequences we have to keep in mind, that today’s environment has drastically changed over the course of 50.000 years, when interbreeding occurred.