This diploma thesis describes the problem of plastic waste and its possible solutions. In the first part, it focuses on synthetic polymers (synthetic plastics) and their potential microbial degradation, since they are presenting the worst danger to our environment and all living creatures. Types of microorganisms and their isolated enzymes, that are showing the most potential regarding many surveys, are stated. It describes basic polymer degradation mechanisms and potential biodegradability factors. It focuses on the most common types of synthetic plastics: polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PUR), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In the second part, the alternative options of synthetic polymer use, mostly in the use of bioplastics are summarized. It describes the meaning of bioplastics and basics of its biodegradation. Influence of different environmental conditions and its microbial population on biodegradability rate of each polymer is described. Some possible improvements of it, by modifying the chemical structure of specific polymers, are also stated. In the last chapter the thesis describes so far known microorganisms, that have the potential of degrading specific types of bioplastics.