Introduction: Low back pain is becoming a well-known health problem in the Western society. It is believed, that factors, such as proprioception is in a great correlation with LBP. Proprioception provides information of awareness of joint position, movement and force. Proprioception is also important for learning motor skills and posture control. Exercise for improving proprioception is frequently used in physiotherapy, but the content is still yet to be clear. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to determent efficiency of exercise for improving proprioception of patients with LBP. Methods: Literature was searched in MEDLINE, PEDro, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect and PubMed database. We used key words: proprioception, exercise AND chronic low back pain, proprioception AND physiotherapy, proprioception AND sensorimotor training. We reviewed articles published in English language after the year 2011. Results: Five articles were used for analysis. Out of five articles, four of them reported an important improvement of proprioception by using the sensorimotor exercise and inspiratory muscle exercise, lower LBP, improved functional status and improved active range of motion of the lumbar spine. Positive effects were maintained for two months after the intervention. Discussion and conclusion: Results of the researched literature showed that, with a special exercise we can positively improve proprioception and lower the intensity of LBP. In further researches, a larger number of subjects and a longer period of exercise units would be recommended.