Introduction: Prolonged deprivation of muscle activity and mechanical loading results in alterations of skeletal muscle size and function. Due to its potential for eliciting muscle activity, hypertrophy and enhancing muscle performance, a vibration therapy has been proposed as a novel intervention for muscle atrophy prevention. Objectives: To review effects of vibration therapy on muscle atrophy and performance following prolonged muscle inactivity. Methods: Literature has been searched via PubMed, PEDro, Google Scholar, The Cochrane Library and DiKUL databases. Results: Nineteen studies have met the inclusion criteria. They elucidated effects of three different types of vibration therapy on healthy subjects. Application of direct muscle vibration prevented peripheral neural impairments during cast immobilization. Static vibration training preserved muscle strength during prolonged bed rest, with little or no effect on degree of muscle atrophy. Dynamic vibration training partially or fully prevented atrophy function and retained muscle performance. The effect varied between muscle groups. Conclusions: Dynamic vibration training has been demonstrated as the most effective form of vibration therapy for muscle atrophy prevention. However, the added value of vibrations per se, when combined with resistance training, remains elusive. Future research should determine the most effective protocols of vibration training and evaluate its safety in various patient populations.