Background: The training of which the goal is to improve the sensory-motor system through stimulation of the proprioceptors activity is often used in physiotherapy, but its content is not clearly defined. The purpose of the literature review was to establish the content of the programs for the lower limbs, which the authors named proprioceptive training, and their effects. Methods: A literature review was conducted using databases PubMed and CINAHL. Results: 10 controlled studies, of which four were randomized controlled trials, were included. Studies were conducted on athletes, elderly, and patients with the knee osteoarthritis, ankle sprains, and multiple sclerosis. Training programs varied from 2 to 12 weeks, twice to five times a week for 20 to 60 minutes. In all the programs, balance training was included, and in some muscle strength training and jumps. Proprioceptive function was indirectly assessed in four studies only. After proprioceptive training, improvement of proprioceptive function, balance, walking speed, muscle strength, and functioning, as well as decreased reinjures were reported. Conclusions: The content of proprioceptive training programmes is diverse. They can be effective in different subjects groups. Well-designed randomised controlled trials to compare different contents, durations and frequencies of proprioceptive training programmes are needed.