Background: Hamstrings are the most frequently injured muscle group amongst athletes who perform high volumes of running, jumping or kicking activities. The aim of this article is to review published scientific studies of the effectiveness of various exercise protocols used for treating hamstring injury and give recommendations for effective physiotherapy. Methods: Randomized controlled trials published from year 2000 onwards were considered relevant. Studies were searched in the following databases: Medline, CINAHL and PEDro. Results: Five studies met all criteria and were further analysed. Results indicated that time to return to sport was the shortest in patients who performed higher volume of static stretching exercise. In contrast, the longest time to return to sport was noted in patients who performed nonspecific isotonic resistance exercise with less emphasis on forceful eccentric muscle contraction. The differences in results between studies can be largely attributed to different criteria for return to sport. Conclusions: Functional eccentric exercises performed at longer muscle-tendon lengths combined with exercises for neuromuscular control of the lumbar-pelvic region are recommended. For successful treatment, the strength training program should be complemented with stretching exercises, but optimal type and volume of the latter remain unknown.