Introduction: Mental practice involves imagining of physical activities in mind, during which activation of the same motor programs occurs as it does in actual execution. It is potentially effective in rehabilitation of patients after stroke. The purpose of this literature review was to establish the effectiveness of mental practice in stroke patients. Methods: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a systematic review was conducted using databases PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, and Cochrane Library. Results: 14 randomised controlled trials involving patients in all phases after stroke were included. Effectiveness of mental practice was reported for improvement of the upper limb activities (6 out of 9 studies) and Fugl-Meyer assessment (4 out of 5 studies). Improvement of walking speed and balance was reported in 1 out of 3 studies. Long-term effects of mental practice were reported in 5 out of 6 RCTs. Conclusions: Mental practice can be effective in improving upper limb function and activity in stroke patients. The best way to implement mental practice is unknown. It is yet to determine in which post-stroke phase mental practice is most effective.