The master’s thesis explores the legal framework and effects of environmentally sensitive permanent grasslands (ESPG) as introduced through EU legislation in 2015 on the agricultural land use. We have studied the legal limitations of the agricultural land use with ESPG status and executed a comparative analysis with measures, imposed on agriculture land use by the Natura 2000 program. Special emphasis was devoted to the effects of ESPGs on land consolidation. The latter has become an important agricultural and environmental measure in improving the utilization of agricultural areas – on one hand due to inadequate parcel structure of farmlands for agricultural production and environmental measures, and on the other hand due to the adaptation of agriculture to climate change. The thesis features a short review of the regulative framework regarding ESPGs on the EU and national level. This is followed by a report on activities and basic information on the designation of ESPGs in Slovenia. Additionally, land consolidation and agro-melioration processes are presented. With the assistance of the surveying company of Geodetski zavod Celje d. o. o. we selected the land consolidation area of Majšperk, where ESPGs were introduced following the consolidation process and where executioners were confronted with accompanying challenges for the first time. We acquired additional information about the issues at hand through conducting interviews with experts from various fields. Our research confirmed both our initial hypotheses and thus corroborated with certainty that ESPGs present a significant obstacle in the processes of land consolidation and agro-melioration. Through interviews conducted, we concluded that in Slovenia, land consolidation is currently not performed on areas with ESPG status, because the planners and executioners of land consolidation processes consider this to be too risk-prone.