Nanoparticles are tiny clumps of material that are not visible to the naked eye. They represent particles ranging in size form 1 nanometer to 100 nanometers. Depending on their origin, they can be separated into natural and engineered nanoparticles. Very well-known examples of nanoparticles are buckminster fullerene and carbon nanotubes. Their main feature compared to other particles is the much larger volume-to-surface ratio. Size, shape, character, reactivity, stability and charge are properties of nanoparticles that greatly affect their toxicity. Increase in engineered nanoparticles, as well as naturally occuring nanoparticles, have a hard-to-control effect on environment. In my thesis I presented their origin and classification. Then, through the properties that make the particles toxic, I defined their environmental impact. I have described their behaviour in the aquatic environment, soil environment, and also the interaction of nanoparticles with plants. Finally, I outlined the methods by which we find them and detect their presence and concentration. On the basis of the data obtained, further measures need to be taken to reduce their concentration to the limit value. Current technological developments increase the need for the implementation of nanoparticles into everyday products, leading to increasingly diffucult control over them, as well as increasing pollution and impact on the environment and life in it.