In the master's thesis we have theoretically defined adolescents with intellectual disability and adolescents with emotional and behavioral difficulties, because adolescents with intellectual disability and emotional and behavioural difficulties were included in the project, which was being implemented in one of the social care institutes for children and adolescents with moderate, severe and profound intellectual disability, and will be presented in the empirical part of this thesis. We have presented disability discourses (medical discourse, laic discourse, discourses of pity and rights), integration discourses (professional and pedagogic discourse) and psycho-medical paradigm that have developed in the field of education and have influence on concrete practices of expert workers. With the help of those discourses and paradigm we have interpreted the results of the empirical part. We have also presented different theories and practical approaches to discipline and moral education, on which expert workers can lean on when they are working with adolescents with intellectual disability, such as: behaviourism, cognitive theories, humanism, modeling theory, cognitive-behavioural approach, positive behavioural support and inductive educational approach. We have also defined pet education and therapy and phototherapy, elements of which could be found in the mentioned project. In the empirical part we have presented and evaluated the project and defined how adolescents with intellectual disability and emotional and behavioural difficulties have been treated in the project and in the institute itself. We have also presented how expert workers comprehend adolescents and which characteristics were attributed to them. We came to two key conclusions: (1) when dealing with adolescents with intellectual disability and emotional and behavioural difficulties in institution and project expert workers have been relying on cognitive-behavioral approach; (2) we have witnessed prevailing of the medical or psycho-medical discourse in the background of the understanding the intellectual disability and emotional and behavioural difficulties.