Introduction: Musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers are very common, hard to recognize, a possibly dangerous (number of lost hours, chronic lesions), which is why prevention and early diagnostics are of great importance. Determined are the definitions, prevalence, severity, recurrence and injury mechanisms. Risk factors can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic and into technical and psycho-social. Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to review the published professional and scientific literature to present risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers. Methods: The search for literature took place through the databases PubMed and IADMS. Used were three professional articles, three reviews of literature, three prospective researches and one retrospective research, published from 2010 to 2017 and discussing musculoskeletal injuries and risk factors for injuries in male and female ballet dancers. Results: The risk factors for injuries in ballet are intrinsic (disorders of puberty and the menstrual cycle, stretchiness, hypermobility, physical predispositions and the ability to perform a technique, age, gender, physical and psychological condition) or extrinsic (nutrition, rest, warm-up, shoes, dancing ground, alignment of the lower limbs, technical errors, hierarchy, dancing partner, training plan, access to specialised health practitioners). Male dancers mostly experience injuries, connected with intrinsic factors and female dancers those, connected with extrinsic factors. Wearing injuries are more common than traumatic ones in both, male and female dancers. The most common wearing injuries are the abrasion of the lower part of the foot, synovitis/bursitis of the ankle and tendon injury in the ankle. Discussion and conclusion: From the review of literature it is evident that the risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in ballet are intrinsic and extrinsic. Ballet teachers, health practitioners and dancers should be familiar with the risk factors. In this manner, the International Association for dance medicine and science formed and is promoting a questionnaire, which will after the anamnesis help ballet dancers under heavy risk for musculoskeletal injuries to prevent them. Since the literature lacks high-quality researches, the consensus about the definition of injuries and risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries is hard to reach.