In order to protect and promote traditional food products, the European Union adopted Regulation No. 1151/2012, specifying three groups of foods products bearing the EU quality labels: Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI), and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG). The use of the EU quality logo, mandatory since 2016, allows the consumers to recognise the products from the above quality schemes and ease their purchasing decisions. Since no study has yet been carried out on the knowledge and perception of food products with national and EU quality labels in Slovenia, the present research attempted to fill this gap. The purpose of the PhD thesis was to assess the knowledge and perception of PDO or PGI labelled food products among Slovenian consumers. Hedonic tests were carried out to determine the influence of consumer segmentation and sociodemographic characteristics on the visibility and liking of PDO or PGI labelled food products. The results of a hedonic sensory analysis of protected and conventional samples of cheese (Tolminc and Planika), prosciutto (Kraški pršut and Pršut Kras) and honey (Kraški med and Zlati panj) showed no statistically significant differences (relating to segmentation and sociodemographic characteristics) among the consumers regarding the sensory recognition and the liking of food products bearing national and European PGI or PDO labels. A questionnaire sent by mail and later upgraded via online served to examine consumers’ attitude towards food products labelled PDO and PGI and their knowledge of special quality labels, including those at national and European levels. According to the results, Slovenian consumers are better acquainted with national quality labels than they are with the European ones. A conjoint analysis was performed to examine how origin, designation and price affected the consumers’ purchasing decisions. It was found that Slovenian consumers do not favour Slovenian products labelled with PDO and PGI and are not willing to pay a higher price for such. The results prove that Slovenia belongs to a group of European countries that do not traditionally use EU quality schemes, which is why the consumers are rather unfamiliar with the EU quality labels. Hence, in addition to food products with national quality labels, promotional activities should include a presentation of food products with EU quality labels and European quality schemes.