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Smiselnost uporabe vitaminskih in mineralnih prehranskih dopolnil pri mladostnikih
Zdešar Kotnik, Katja (Avtor), Golja, Petra (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu, Jurak, Gregor (Komentor)

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Izvleček
Mladostniki s prehrano v veliki meri ne zadostijo potrebam po vseh mikrohranilih, po drugi strani vse več posameznikov posega po prehranskih dopolnilih (PD). Namen raziskovalnega dela je bil ugotoviti, ali pri mladostnikih obstaja tveganje za zdravje zaradi neustrezne prehrane in/ali uporabe PD. Na reprezentativnem vzorcu slovenskih mladostnikov starih od 14 do 19 let (N=1463) iz 15 srednjih šol iz različnih regij smo v okviru projekta ARTOS (Analiza razvojnih trendov otrok v Sloveniji) v letu 2014 pridobili presečne podatke o uporabi PD, telesni dejavnosti (vprašalnik SHAPES), vnosu mikrohranil (dvakrat ponovljeni priklic jedilnika preteklega dne), prehranjevalnih navadah (vprašalnik KIGGS) ter socio-demografskih in antropometričnih lastnostih (telesna višina in masa) mladostnikov. Rezultati so pokazali, da je v populaciji mladostnikov uporaba PD zelo razširjena (69 %), najpogosteje PD uživajo kar po lastni presoji (41 %) ali po nasvetu staršev/drugih sorodnikov (30 %). Uporabniki PD so pogosteje fantje, telesno bolj dejavni posamezniki, člani športnih klubov, pogosteje so vključeni v ekipne športe, dnevni uporabniki PD pa tudi več časa tedensko namenijo treningu v primerjavi z ostalimi športniki. Uporaba PD pri mladostnikih značilno prispeva k absolutnemu vnosu večine vitaminov in nekaterih mineralov, vendar ne v tolikšni meri, da bi s tem uporabniki PD presegli zgornjo dovoljeno mejo dnevnega vnosa mikrohranil. Mladostniki s hrano in pijačami zaužijejo premalo večine vitaminov in mineralov, a kar 2-3 krat več natrija glede na minimalna priporočila neškega združenja za prehrano (DGE). Telesno zelo dejavni mladostniki imajo sicer višji vnos nekaterih vitaminov in mineralov s hrano in pijačami v primerjavi z ostalimi mladostniki, a pri njih kljub temu ne zasledimo značilno višjega odstotka posameznikov, ki bi dosegali DGE priporočila za posamezne vitamine in minerale (z izjemo vitamina K pri fantih). Rezultati so posledica dejstva, da okoli tri četrtine mladostnikov obeh spolov ne dosega priporočil optimizirane mešane prehrane (OMD) za vnos sadja (36 % OMD priporočene vrednosti (pv)) in zelenjave (30 % OMD pv), pa tudi mleka/mlečnih izdelkov (40 % OMD pv), žit/žitnih izdelkov (54 % OMD pv) in rib (33 % OMD pv). Po drugi strani je skoraj tri četrtine mladostnikov prekoračilo priporočila za vnos mesa/mesnih izdelkov (320 % OMD pv) ter sladkih/slanih prigrizkov (453 % OMD pv). Na podlagi rezultatov zaključujemo, da je treba za zadostitev potreb po vitaminih in mineralih pri mladostnikih srednješolcih bistveno izboljšati njihove prehranjevalne navade ne glede na spol in telesno dejavnost. Kot kaže, je nujno mladostnike izobraziti o pomenu zdrave prehrane in morebitnih škodljivih posledicah (nepotrebne) uporabe PD.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:mladostniki, prehrana, prehranska dopolnila, vitamini, minerali, telesna dejavnost, športni klubi
Vrsta gradiva:Doktorsko delo/naloga (mb31)
Tipologija:2.08 - Doktorska disertacija
Organizacija:BF - Biotehniška fakulteta
Leto izida:2019
Založnik:[K. Zdešar Kotnik]
UDK:613.292-053:612.3
COBISS.SI-ID:5027704 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:121
Število prenosov:96
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
 
Skupna ocena:(0 glasov)
Vaša ocena:Ocenjevanje je dovoljeno samo prijavljenim uporabnikom.
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Advisability of vitamin and mineral dietary supplement use among adolescents
Izvleček:
Adolescents often fail to meet the intake requirements for micronutrients with their food. On the other hand, increasing number of individuals are supplementing their diet with dietary supplements (DS). The aim of the present study was to determine whether health risk due to inadequate diet and/or use of DS exists among Slovenian adolescents. Data on DS use, physical activity (SHAPES questionnaire), micronutrients intake (two times 24-h recall), eating habits (KIGGS questionnaire), as well as socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics (body height and body mass) were collected within the ACDSi (Analysis of Children's Development in Slovenia) cross-sectional study, performed in 2014 on a representative sample of Slovenian adolescents aged between 14 and 19 (N=1463), enrolled into 15 secondary schools in different Slovenian regions. The results of our study demonstrated that DS use is widespread (69 %) among adolescents, who use DS mostly by their own decision (41 %) or follow the advice of their parents/other relatives (30 %). DS users are more likely to be males, physically more active individuals, members of sports clubs, more often involved in team sports, and daily DS users also spend more time per week for training than other adolescent athletes. The use of DS in adolescents contributes significantly to their absolute intake of most vitamins and certain minerals, which in DS users increases the percentage of individuals, who meet the recommendations for daily intake of certain vitamins and minerals set by the German Food Association (DGE), but not to the extent that DS users would exceed the upper tolerable level for daily micronutrient intake. Results also demonstrated that with their diet alone (without DS) adolescents consumed less vitamins and minerals than recommended by the DGE. On the other hand, adolescents consumed 2-3 times more sodium than recommended minimum value by DGE. The results of our study indicate that intake of some vitamins and minerals with diet alone is significantly higher in vigorously active adolescents, as compared to other adolescents. Nevertheless, the percentage of individuals, who met DGE intake recommendations for certain vitamins and minerals, was not significantly higher in vigorously active adolescents, as compared to others (with the exception of vitamin K in males). The low intake of most vitamins and minerals in the vast majority of adolescents is due to the fact that compared to the Optimized mixed diet (OMD) recommendations, around three quarters of adolescents of both genders consume significantly less fruits (36 % of OMD recommendations) and vegetables (30 % of OMD recommendations), as well as less milk/dairy products (40 % of OMD recommendations), cereals/cereal products (54 % of OMD recommendations), and fish (33 % of OMD recommendations). On the other hand, almost three quarters of adolescents exceeded the recommended amount of meat/meat products (320 % OMD) and sweet/savory snacks (453 % OMD). Based on the results of this doctoral thesis we emphasize the necessity to significantly improve the adolescents' nutritional habits, so that they will be able to meet the intake requirements for all micronutrients, which applies to all adolescents, regardless of the extent of their phisical activity. Adolescents need to be better educated about the importance of healthy nutrition and possible negative effects of unnecessary DS use.

Ključne besede:adolescents, nutrition, dietary supplements, vitamins, minerals, physical activity, sports clubs

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