Osteoporosis is known already from the time of ancient Egyptians. Egyptian mummies of older men from around 220 years BC had evidence of the presence of osteoporosis. Despite the fact that osteoporosis is a disease, that has so long been a part of our lives, we still suffer its consequences. Probably even more than ever, as the age of the population increases and physical activity as a counterweight to the disease decreases each year. In the Master's thesis we will learn about osteoporosis and factors for its formation. We will describe the latest methods of diagnosing the disease and what can be done to prevent the disease or at least delaying its emergence. Above all, we will explore how can we fight osteoporosis with exercise (preventive and curative), which exercises are more effective than others and what should osteoporotic patient do for strong bones and functional life. For the making of the thesis various domestic and foreign sources were used, which have touched this controversial issue. Different forms of exercise have different positive effects which can be combined to improve the functionality of whole body. The greatest positive effects and potential represents the combined exercise of strenght, which involves weight loading and high forces acting on the bone. Also balance exercises in which we recomend specifically targeted balance exercises an Tai Chi and flexibility exercise with its effect on postural control are important in whole picture. Thus, we conclude that exercise should be included in therapy of osteoporosis patients.