The aim of the study was to investigate antibiotic resistance of erythromycin, tetracycline and kanamycin among lactobacilli isolated from cheese. We used 34 samples of cheese available on the Slovenian market, from which we isolated 176 isolates. Isolates were analysed by using RAPD-PCR and among isolates with the same RAPD-PCR band pattern, one was selected for further analysis. 106 isolates with different band pattern were first identified at species level and it was revealed that most strains belonged to the species of Lactobacilus plantarum (26) and L. paracasei (22), 18 strains belonged to Pediococcus pentosaceus species and 1 strain to Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis species. Phenotypic resistance was determined by the microdilution method. 70 strains exerted MIC values above the cut-off values proposed by EFSA. Therefore, PCR was carried out to search for antibiotic resistance genes as follows: tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(M), tet(O) , tet(W), ermA, ermB, ermC, ermT, aph(3')-llla, aac(6')-aph(2'') in ant(6)-la. Among resistant strains, all 70 strains revealed phenotypic resistance to kanamycin, while 5 strains, belonging to L. parabuchneri, L. capillatus, L. plantarum, P. pentosaceus and L. paracasei were resistant to erythromycin, but none of the strains carried the investigated antibiotic resistance genes. Resistance to tetracycline showed 9 strains but the presence of genes tet(A) and tet(M) was found only in the strain of L. capillatus. We can conclude that there is no serious risk of horizontal gene transfer between investigated lactobacilli, but there is still necessity to test LAB for antibiotic resistance.