Introduction: Piriformis muscle syndrome is a neuromuscular disorder with many symptoms. The most common symptom is back pain which can radiate posteriorly to the lower limb. It most often occurs in the fourth and fifth decade of an individual's life, and affects 6-8% back pain patients anually. Due to the characteristics of the pelvis, the condition mostly affects women and is often brought on by traumatic injury or local ischaemia. When detecting piriformis muscle syndrome, anamnesis and clinical examination are the most valuable tools. Diagnostic tests are used to exclude differential diagnoses. The most effective medical discipline in treatment is physiotherapy, which is based on the stretching and relaxation of the piriformis muscle. Purpose: The purpose of this diploma thesis is to determine the success of physiotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of piriformis muscle syndrome. Methods: A review of the literature published between 2000 and 2017 was performed. The databases CINAHL, MEDLINE were used, together with PubMed to identify the appropriate studies. The key words used were: piriformis muscle syndrome, physiotherapy, treatment, stretching techniques, relaxation techniques, nerve decompression. Results: Seven studies were included in the literature review according to exclusion and inclusion criteria. Physiotherapy procedures have been presented and evaluated in five studies. Due to lack of research, better comparability and frequency of treatment, two other studies that involve treatment with therapeutic blockages have been included. Research involving a physiotherapeutic approach and procedures has shown a significant and lasting improvement. Therapeutic blockages have proven to be an effective method of treatment but did not record any long-term symptoms of relief. Discussion and conclusion: According to the results of the review, it can be confirmed that physiotherapy is the most effective medical discipline in the treatment of piriformis muscle syndrome, which must be aimed at stretching and relaxation of the piriformis muscle, as this causes decompression of the sciatic nerve.