This thesis focuses on Ana María Matute's work First memory. The first part briefly explains the historical context of the text - the period of the Spanish Civil War. The life and work of Ana Maria Matute is presented in the following chapters. The main part focuses on the novel's analysis, which attempts to comprehensively cover the depiction of the island's society, somewhat isolated from the events of war taking place on the mainland. The island, with its symbolic and metaphoric meanings scattered throughout the thesis, represents a kind of microcosmos that illustrates the Spanish society of that time. The critical tone, permeating throughout the novel, is referred to multiple times.