The intensity distribution of light backscattered from a turbid sample (diuse reflectance or
reflectance) strongly depends on its optical properties that govern the light propagation through the sample. Since the absorption properties are related to the sample chemical composition and scattering properties to its structure, the light backscattered from a turbid sample carries an abundance information about the structure and chemical composition. As such, the measured backscattered light can be used for noninvasive quantitative analysis and characterization of various tissue abnormalities in terms of absorption and scattering optical properties. The optical properties can be used to aid early disease diagnosis, monitor therapy or disease progression and for surgical guidance.