Introduction: There are three kinds of venoumous snakes in Slovenia, namely a horned viper (Vipera ammodytes), an asp viper (Vipera aspis) and a common European adder (Vipera berus). A snakebite can seriously endanger one’s health, if the person does not get medical care in time. Hospital care has made a lot of progress, so there is no mortality due to snakebites. Sport climbing, alpinism and mountaineering are sports and recreational activities, which take place in nature and there is greater risk of snakebites especially in warm period of the year. If this happens, first aid measures, appropriate transport of the poisoned person, as well as further medical care, are crucial. Purpose: The purpose of the diploma paper is to describe first aid measures after a snakebite, to present further care of the poisoned person in a division of internal medicine and treatment in Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology Department and to determine the level of theoretical knowledge of the first aid measures in case of a snakebite among the mountain lovers. Method: We used the descriptive method, which included an overview of relevant home and foreign literature. We designed a survey questionnaire that covered 12 questions of open and closed types. The survey was anonymous. Results: 176 respondents participated in the survey, 55 % of men and 45 % of women. The majority of respondents (29,5 %) were from 26 to 35 years old. 44,9 % of respondents have completed college or faculty. When recognising snakes, 74,4 % of individuals recognised a horned viper. The majority knows which are venomous snakes in Slovenia, namely 96,6 % of respondents marked a horned viper (Vipera ammodytes), 91 % marked an asp viper (Vipera aspis) and 94,3 % marked a common European viper (Vipera berus). The biggest source of giving first aid appeared to be various literature (books) and internet (36,3 %). 96,6 % of respondents agreed that a horned viper is the most venomous snake. 59 % of respondents think that a common European viper bite is the most frequent in Slovenian mountains and 91,5 % of respondents answered that the injured person must keep still after a snakebite. 94 % of respondents know that it is necessary to remove a watch, a bracelet or a ring from the bitten arm or hand. 97,7 % of individuals would consult a doctor after snake bite, 85,9 % would put on a sterile bandage and 77,8 % of respondents would immobilise the injured limb. Discussion and conclusion: Knowledge about venomous snakes in Slovenia among the respondents is quite good. There have been no deaths due to horned viper or common European viper bite lately, as the treatment of such cases has progressed. The theoretical knowledge of mountaineers about initial first aid procedures is inadequate, while knowledge of other measures, following the first measures, is better.