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Igra in razvijanje socialnih veščin pri otrocih z Aspergerjevim sindromom : magistrsko delo
Polenik, Lucija (Avtor), Lipec-Stopar, Mojca (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

URLURL - Predstavitvena datoteka, za dostop obiščite http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/id/eprint/5178 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

Izvleček
Otroci z Aspergerjevim sindromom (AS) zaradi narave svojih težav potrebujejo specifičen program dela. Največ pomoči in podpore potrebujejo na področju razvijanja socialnih veščin in učenja v konkretnih življenjskih situacijah, preko neposrednega učenja in igre. Krepitev in razvijanje socialnih veščin je najprimerneje izvajati v majhnih skupinah, je pa te oblike dela pri nas manj, saj prevladuje individualno nudenje dodatne strokovne pomoči otrokom z AS. Prav tako programi, ki bi bili ciljno naravnani na področja primanjkljajev otrok z AS, niso ustrezno evalvirani. Eden izmed načinov razvijanja socialnih veščin so skupinske delavnice, preko katerih lahko otrokom nudimo potrebne interakcije ter vplivamo na medsebojno komunikacijo in sodelovanje. Individualen način dela je še vedno prevladujoč, zato je namen magistrskega dela oblikovati, izvesti ustrezen program ter ovrednotiti njegove učinke z vidika zadovoljstva otrok in staršev. Pri delu smo se osredotočili predvsem na igro otrok in na njihovo vedenje v skupini. Naš raziskovalni nabor oseb predstavljajo trije otroci z AS, stari med osem in devet let. Vsi imajo težave na področju socialnih interakcij, izkazujejo specifične interese in ponavljajoča se vedenja. Pri vseh je opazno pomanjkanje empatije, odsotnost intuitivnega razumevanja čustev in drugačno komuniciranje. Posebno pozornost je treba posvetiti tudi vodenju in učenju različnih oblik igranja. V sodelovanju s starši smo spoznavali funkcioniranje posameznega otroka. Otroke smo opazovali z opazovalnimi shemami, ki so bile za potrebe magistrskega dela pridobljene iz tuje literature. Smiselno je, da so skupine otrok z AS oblikovane tako, da jim nudijo priložnost razvijanja ter izboljšanja socialnih veščin v varnem, spodbudnem in strukturiranem okolju. Naš cilj je bil opazovati aktivno vključenost otrok v skupinske igre in dejavnosti, njihov interes za skupinske dejavnosti, način igranja v skupini in navezovanje odnosov z drugimi. Igralne dejavnosti smo izbirali glede na otrokovo starost, interese, potrebe ter druge individualne posebnosti. Individualni in skupinski odzivi ter interakcije so nam služili kot kriterij posameznikovega napredovanja. Intenzivna obravnava v obdobju šestih mesecev je pokazala uspešnost na področju sodelovanja s soudeleženci na delavnicah in vključenosti v dejavnosti. Pozitivni učinki so vidni v samostojnem vključevanju v skupinsko igro ter v pogostejšem iskanju stikov z drugimi otroki. Ugotovili smo, da je bilo težav z neustreznim vedenjem vedno manj. Menimo, da je bila za otroke ključna prosta igra v igralnici, saj je otroci v šoli in doma niso deležni v tolikšnem obsegu in na način, kakršen je bil prisoten na naših delavnicah. Otrokom se je med delavnicami uspelo dogovarjati in se skupaj igrati. Delavnice so pozitivno učinkovale na področje samostojnega dogovarjanja, reševanja problemov, sprejemanja in prilagajanja drug drugemu oziroma skupini. Ostajajo pa nekatera področja, kjer napredka ni bilo, saj naučenega iz situacije delovanja v majhni skupini, še niso zmogli prenesti v druga okolja.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:avtistične motnje, Aspergerjev sindrom, socialne veščine
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Tipologija:2.09 - Magistrsko delo
Organizacija:PEF - Pedagoška fakulteta
Leto izida:2018
Založnik:[l. Polenik]
Št. strani:VII, 66, 45 str.
UDK:376:616.896(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:12066121 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:158
Število prenosov:50
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Play and development of social skills in children with asperger syndrome
Izvleček:
Due to the nature of their condition children with Asperger syndrome (AS) need more help and support in developing their social skills and learning in real life situations, through direct learning and playing. In small groups such types of learning are seldom but since development of social skills takes place in a group the program presented in this master’s thesis is specific. In Slovenia there is no evaluation of programs that would focus on special needs of children with Asperger syndrome. Nowadays the importance of a child's social development is becoming more and more acknowledged. One of the ways to develop children’s social skills is through group workshops that enable needed interaction and influence mutual cooperation and communication. Individual work still prevails in Slovenia so the aim of this thesis is to design and implement a program and to evaluate its effects from the aspect of children's and their parents' satisfaction. The program activities focused on children’s playing and their behaviour in a group. The program included three kids with Asperger syndrome aged between 8 and 9. Their condition is characterised by problems in social interaction, a specific scope of interests and by repetitive behaviour patterns. Children with AS also lack empathy, understanding other people's emotions on intuitive basis and communicate differently in comparison to children without the condition. Since children don't develop all forms of playing spontaneously special attention needs to be paid to guiding and learning about different forms of playing. The information about individual children’s behaviours was gained through cooperation with parents. Children were observed by monitoring schemes acquired from foreign research. To form groups for the selected children the following needs to apply: the groups need to enable opportunities for development and improvement of children’s social skills and they need to represent a safe, encouraging, and structured environment. Through monitoring schemes it was observed whether a child was actively included into group playing and activities, their degree of shown interest for group work, their ways of playing in a group and a degree of established interaction in the group. Playing activities were selected according to child's age, interests, needs and individual abilities. The progress was measured on the basis of individual, group response as well as interaction. The 6-month monitoring process showed improvement in cooperation and degree of involvement in activities. Positive aspect was also seen in independent involvement in group playing, and in an increased search for interaction with other children. Also, less unwanted behaviour was observed. The key factor was unguided playing in a playroom the nature and scope of which is different from the one at taking place home or in school. During the workshops the children were able to interact and play together. The workshops had a positive impact on them making arrangements independently, on problem solving as well as accepting and adapting to other people and to the group. There are several fields where no progress was observed. When working in groups the question about the transfer of learned skills to other environments remains.

Ključne besede:autism, play, avtizem, igra

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