Milk is a wholesome food of animal origin, derived from the mammalian mammary gland. It became a target of genetic engineering to improve its composition and to extract a variety of substances (proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals) and active ingredients (pharmaceutical proteins), to improve milk quality, technological efficiency and influence the health status of people and animals (nutrition supply, disease prevention,…). The number of human population and its structure are rapidly increasing and changing, and there is an increasing need for more innovative ways of obtaining high-quality food, as well as new, improved techniques for the production of medicinal and pharmaceutical ingredients. Today, the only present recombinant products on the market derived from milk is human antithrombin III (ATryn® ), and C1 inhibitor (Ruconest®). The purpose of my study is to rewiev the literature in the field of genetic engineering of milk. The goal of my study is to find out what are the options and ways to obtain genetically modified milk, and review their barriers.