Nowadays, travelling by plane is something standard, however, this is not yet the case with air passenger rights. The majority of passengers who travel by plane are unfamiliar with the specific rights they have in cases of denied boarding, flight cancellation or flight delay as well as in cases of baggage delay, loss or damage. Persons with disabilities and persons with reduced mobility also have special rights. The master thesis provides a comprehensive overview of air passenger rights and air carriers liability regarding violation of rights. The first part presents in brief the legal regulation of private aviation law on an international, European and national level. Further on, the mentioned legal sources, judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union and judgments of national courts of EU Member States are used to describe examples when passenger rights were granted, i.e. in cases of denied boarding, flight cancellation, flight delay and the case of better or poorer accommodation. Additionally, the thesis discusses the rights of passengers in these cases, rights of persons with disabilities and persons with reduced mobility, air carriers liability for baggage loss, damage or delay, air carriers liability for damages, limitation and exclusion of liability and the air carriers’ right of recourse. The master thesis focuses on judgments adopted by the Court of Justice of the European Union that have co-created and developed the rights of air passengers. The complete analysis of air passenger rights reveals that passengers are very well taken care of, nevertheless, some unresolved issues still remain.