The Mediterranean diet has its roots anchored in a large area, surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, where people have been sharping their eating habits for more than 1000 years while enjoying cooking, socializing and eating. It is a long-lasting way of eating, which includes eating habits of many civilizations and has an emphasis on plant foods. It promotes increased intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products, legumes, nuts and seeds. To add the right flavour in foods are mostly used different herbs and spices. The diet typically includes a moderate amount of wine, which has a lot of health effects. The main source of fat is olive oil rich loaded with antioxidants and healthy monounsaturated fats. People consume moderate amounts of lean meat and regularly eat fish and seafood. Many studies have shown that this type of eating protects against chronic diseases, which are one of the main causes of premature mortality due to most common chronic non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and type 2 diabetes. In addition it also protects against stress, dementia, cognitive abnormalities and has many other positive effects, which are an additional reason why people should decide for this type of eating. Likewise, the Mediterranean diet has been widely considered as a model of healthy eating in the middle of the 20th century but it unfortunately began to lose its importance due to the globalization and expansion of industrial products.