Introduction: First aid knowledge is of utmost importance for parents, because in majority of cases, the injuries and diseases with rapid onset occur at home. Number of children seeking help in emergency department is rising, mostly due to injuries acquired at home or in the kindergarten. In developed countries, accidents present the main reason for severe injuries and death in children. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to present urgent states, situations, injuries in preschool children and define the correct first aid steps, that can be taken by the parents in emergency situations. Using quantitative research method, we want to determine the parents' awareness about first aid, determine their basic resuscitation knowledge and their knowledge self-evaluation. Methods: A descriptive method was used to perform a literature review. Data was collected in february and march 2018, using quantitative research approach and a questionnaire with 26 questions, targeting parents of preschool children. Results: In this research, 106 parents of preschool children were included. The majority of them were between 31 and 40 years of age, finished secondary school. Most (83 %) parents completed the first aid course as a part of their driver's licence training and 43 % completed it less than 10 years ago. 20,9 % know the correct compression to inhalation ratio for children aged 1 or more and only 23,8 % of the parents know the correct position for a child in shock. Discussion and conclusion: Results show that the parents' knowledge of first aid for preschool children is low and inadequate. Because accidents are relatively frequent and have a limited prevention possibility, we believe that using certain preventive measures and knowledge could play an important role in reducing their occurence. In that regard, renewing the first aid knowledge is most important, for parents, kindergarten teachers and everyone else in frequent contact with children.