Introduction: First aid knowledge and skills are important for the entire community and particularly vulnerable groups, including the elderly. Stroke and cardiac arrest are critical conditions that put everybody at risk. In case of acute stroke as well as sudden cardiac arrest, their identification and immediate first aid measures by witnesses are vital for the outcome of treatment and even the rate of survival. Objective: To outline the importance of first aid knowledge, identify the level of theoretical first aid knowledge associated with acute myocardial infarction and stroke and determine the awareness of emergency phone numbers among the elderly population. Methodology: The descriptive method was employed and Slovenian as well as foreign scientific literature reviewed. The study is based on non-experimental quantitative empirical research methods while data was collected via questionnaires. The questionnaire comprised 12 closed and open-ended questions and was answered by 121 older people. Results: The majority of participants are capable of identifying the first symptoms of acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Acute myocardial infarction symptoms were recognised by 88,4 % and stroke symptoms by 90,9 % of participants. Also favourable was their knowledge of first aid measures; with the onset of sudden chest pain, 70,3 % would dial the emergency phone number and 17,4 % family and neighbours. In case of potential stroke, the level of knowledge on first aid measures was even better; 78,5 % of participants have indicated that they would call 112 while 14,9 % of participants would contact relatives and neighbours. The majority of participants are familiar with the emergency phone number; however, in case of emergency, only a third would opt for calling 112 while the rest would contact family and neighbours. Half of participants do not have the emergency phone number recorded, with 12,4 % of them indicating the incorrect number. Among the other half of participants who have the emergency number recorded, 10,8 % failed to provide the correct answer. Further first aid training is desired by half of participants who would prefer to improve their knowledge through television shows and leaflets while less interest was exhibited in workshops. As age increases, the interest in improving first aid knowledge diminishes. Discussion and conclusion: It was established that the elderly population is well acquainted with acute myocardial infarction and stroke symptoms and that they are also generally familiar with first aid measures associated with the conditions. However, there are individuals that, in case of onset of the conditions, would not opt for calling the emergency phone number and instead contact their family and neighbours. Also established was an increase in the level of knowledge of emergency phone numbers compared to studies in the field by other authors in previous years. It would make sense to include as many older persons as possible in first aid training, delivered in a suitable manner and conducted in a familiar environment, e.g. the local community.