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Pomen prenatalnega testiranja nosečnic na HIV in svetovalna vloga medicinske sestre : diplomsko delo
Škorjanec, Marijana (Avtor), Mihelič Zajec, Andreja (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

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Izvleček
Uvod: Razširjenost virusa humane imunske pomanjkljivosti (HIV) še vedno predstavlja enega večjih javnozdravstvenih problemov in pogost vzrok za obolevnost in umrljivost žensk in otrok, predvsem v manj razvitih državah določenih geografskih predelov. Okužbe se pojavljajo tudi pri nosečnicah; tiste, ki za okužbo ne vedo, tvegajo prenos virusa na otroka že pred rojstvom, med samim porodom ali po porodu z uživanjem materinega mleka. Medicinska sestra je najpogosteje prva, ki stopi v stik z nosečnico, sodeluje pri vseh aktivnostih zdravstvene nege, po svoji poklicni dolžnosti pa bi morala svetovati in predlagati testiranje z zagotovitvijo anonimnosti in možnostjo zavrnitve testa. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je predstaviti pomen prenatalnega testiranja in zgodnjega odkrivanja okužbe z vidika nosečnic in javnozdravstvenega sistema. Cilj je tudi ugotoviti, kateri dejavniki in ovire bistveno vplivajo na privolitev v testiranje ter vpliv svetovalne vloge medicinske sestre. Metode dela: V diplomskem delu je uporabljen sistematični pregled literature. Zajeti so članki v slovenskem in angleškem jeziku. Literatura je bila poiskana s pomočjo podatkovnih baz CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nurseing and Allied Health Literature) in MEDLINE. V analizo je vključenih 33 člankov, ki vsebinsko ustrezajo našim ciljem. Članki so objavljeni v obdobju od leta 2005 do 2017. Rezultati: Testiranje na HIV je povezano z uspešnostjo zdravljenja in zmanjševanjem možnosti prenosa virusa na otroka, kot pomembno pa se kaže tudi z vidika javnozdravstvenega sistema, saj je cena testiranja zanemarljiva v primerjavi z dragim doživljenjskim zdravljenjem. Pri testiranju je prisotnih veliko ovir in dejavnikov, ki bistveno vplivajo na privolitev v testiranje. Svetovanje in priporočila medicinskih sester, kot tudi znanje in ozaveščenost o okužbi so se izkazali kot pomembni za privolitev v testiranje. Razprava in zaključek: Testiranje nosečnic ima pomembno vlogo pri preprečevanju prenosa virusa na otroka in s tem širjenja bolezni. Za zajezitev okužbe predvsem v državah z visoko incidenco je potrebno enako intenzivno ali povečano izvajanje preventivnih aktivnosti in promocija testiranja. Poudarek je tudi na izobraževanju celotne populacije. Seznanjenost in poznavanje okužbe pripomoreta k privolitvi v testiranje, k zmanjševanju diskriminacije in stigme, kot tudi pri odpravi drugih ovir, ki se pojavljajo pri testiranju in so mnogokrat vzrok za slabo pretestiranost in pozno odkrite okužbe.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:okužba s HIV, nosečnost, svetovanje in testiranje na okužbo s HIV, prenos okužbe s HIV z matere na otroka
Vrsta gradiva:Diplomsko delo/naloga (mb11)
Organizacija:ZF - Zdravstvena fakulteta
Leto izida:2018
COBISS.SI-ID:5430891 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:681
Število prenosov:374
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:The importance of prenatal HIV testing and advisory role of the nurse : diploma work
Izvleček:
Introduction: The prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still one of the major public health problems and a common cause of morbidity and mortality of women and children, especially in less developed countries of certain geographical areas. Infections also occur in pregnant women and those, who do not know for infection are at risk of transmitting the virus to the baby befor birth, during childbirth or after birth through consuming mother’s milk. The nurse is most often the first person to contact the pregnant woman and participate in all nursing activities and should, in her professional duty, advise and propose testing, while also providing anonymity and the possibility of declining the test. Purpose: The purpose of this diploma work is to present the importance of prenatal testing and early infection detection from the perspective of pregnant women and the public health system. The aim is also to determine the factors and barriers that have a significant impact on the consent to testing and the impact of the advisory role of the nurse. Methods: A systematic review of literature was used, including articles published in Slovenian and English. The literature was found through CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and MEDLINE. The analysis included 33 articles that were relevant to our aim. Articles published between 2005 to 2017 were used. Results: HIV testing is associated with success of treatment and reducing the possibility of transmission of the virus to the child. These facts make testing important from the public health system perspective, since minimal financial contributions can significantly impact the spread of infection and reduce the cost of lifelong treatment of mothers and children. There are many obstacles and factors that are significantly affecting consent to testing. Nursing advice and recommendations as well as knowledge and awareness of the infection have proven important for consent to testing. Discussion and conclusion: Testing pregnant women plays an important role in preventing the transmission of the virus to the child and thus the spread of the infection. In order to stem the infection, the level of preventive actions and the promotion of testing needs to stay at its current state or even increase. The emphasis must be on educating the entire population. Information and knowledge about the infection help increase consent to testing, reduce discrimination and stigma, as well as eliminate the obstacles to testing that are often the cause of poor testing uptake and late-diagnosed infections.

Ključne besede:HIV infection, pregnancy, counselling and HIV testing, prenatal HIV transmission from mother to child

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