Introduction: Poisoning in children are an important public health problem. Children are not miniature adults, they are particulary sensitive to harmful chemical substances. A poison is any substance that is harmuful to our organism. The poison can be fed into teh body in different ways: it can be swallowed, injected, inhaled or absorbed through our skin. We're talking about poisoning, when a toxic substance enters our body and leaves consequences in our organism. Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is, to present the most common poisoning in children and to introduce the role of nurses. Working methods: in this thesis a descriptive method work was used with a review of the literature in Slovene and English. Literature that was used is from the period from the year 2007 to 2017, due to the important content, an older sources from the year 2002 were also used. The literature search was conducted with the help of mutual bibliographic system COBISS.si, and the use of electronic databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, ScienceDirect and Scopus. Results: the majority of young children were exposed to unintentional poisoning, because they are curious and more exposed to dangers in the environment, but they are fortunately rarely fatal. While adolescents are exposed to intentional poisoning, which often causes death. Unfortunately, the frequency of the intentional poisoning among adolescents is increasing due to the large level of stress and the change of family and social situations in our society. . The nurse is the key link in the community education of prevention of poisoning and treatment of exposure to poisoning. Discussion and conclusion: the intentional and accidental poisoning are frequent injuries in childhood which deeply affect the health of children. There are various patterns of poisoning due to the significant differences in socio - economic and different cultures in different countries. Nurses have extensive knowledge and high level of competence, as they must know the signs of toxins and their symptoms.