Introduction: Musculoskeletal disorders that are affected or caused by playing an instrument are addressed as playing-related musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders are common phenomenon among musicians due to their working environment and forced body postures they have to retain every day for up to several hours. They can cause pain, inability to perform on maximum level and even termination of work. Purpose: The aim of this diploma was to review published results of studies that investigated incidence and risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among musicians and to determine ways of preventing them. Methods: Studies investigating incidence and risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among professional musicians employed in symphonic orchestra which were published from year 2000 onwards and with access to full text were included in this review. Literature was searched in databases PubMed, CINAHL and PEDro. Keywords used in literature search were musculoskeletal disease AND musician, musician AND risk factor AND musculoskeletal problems. Results: The initial literature search strategy resulted in 494 hits, six of which were included in analysis. All studies were cross-sectional. Differences in definitions of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders, measuring tools, time frame of incidence and presentation of results were present in studies. Total number of participants included in all studies was 1645. Year prevalence of disorders among musicians ranged between 83–97 % and life prevalence ranged between 84–89,5 %. Most common pain regions were neck, shoulders, upper back and lower back. Women and string players had higher incidence of musculoskeletal disorders. Other risk factors were biomechanical factors (extreme body postures, excessive muscle activation, repetitive movements, static and dynamic loading), perceived physical environment (sound intensity, temperature, humidity, ventilation and illumination in the concert and rehearsal halls), many playing hours, somatizing tendency, performance anxiety and depression. Discussion and conclusion: Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders have high prevalence among musicians. They often conceal them, fearing that they might lose the appraisal of their colleagues and their job. There is need for more high quality studies in which all authors would use the same definition of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders and same measuring tools.