This paper discusses legal protection of children in civil medical law in Slovenia, and in comparative law. While theory has been paying special attention to the rights of children, including the rights from the sphere of civil medical law, the Slovenian case law is not particularly developed on this field. Therefore, for their decisions, Slovenian courts sometimes help themselves with the use of foreign legal theory and case law. For this reason, the paper presents how this problem is tackled by some other countries which had dealt with some specific questions before us. The paper starts by presenting the definition of a child, which is followed by legal sources that regulate children’s rights and obligations. Special attention is given to the standard of the best interest of child, since it is the main principle when deciding on child-related matters. In the body, general rights that apply to all patients are described, and special attention is given to the specific rights that only apply to children. Since these are too numerous to be considered in this work in their entirety, I specifically focused on those I found either most problematic or up-to-date. Later, the paper discusses the rights and obligations of parents towards their child, where the emphasis is on the fact that they are obligated to fulfill them in a way that provides maximum benefits for the child. In the conclusion of the chapter which refers to parents, the paper presents measures that can be taken when parents do not fulfill their obligations or when they fulfill them in contradiction with the well-being of a child. The last chapter defines the relationships between doctors and the child as a patient, as well as the rights and obligations of the doctor which arise from this relationship. Legal consequences of healthcare mistakes, and foreign legal order in the cases of hopeless treatment are presented through practical examples.