Introduction: Hospital-acquired infections or nosocomial infections can develop in patients who are exposed to diagnostic procedures, medical treatment, medical care and rehabilitation in hospital. During the time that a patient has a hospital-acquired infection or any other infection with a high risk of transmission, special treatment conditions apply. These conditions are adapted to possible routes of transmission. In the operating room, there are a number of adjustments and preventive measures needed when a surgical procedure is about to be done on a patient with a known infection. Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to define the problem of hospital-acquired infections with a special emphasis on operative health care, to present possible transmissions and to present how to properly manage and prevent them. We wish to present the work of the National Commission for Prevention and Control of Hospital-Acquired Infections (Nacionalna komisija za preprečevanje in obvladovanje okužb) and the Service for Prevention and Control of Hospital-Acquired Infections (Služba za preprečevanje in obvladovanje bolnišničnih okužb) at the University Medical Centre of Ljubljana. Research methods: We used the descriptive method with a review of Slovene and English-language technical and scientific literature. We used the Google Scholar search engine, as well as the Medline, CINAHL and Cochrane databases and the Slovenia Nursing Review. The University Medical Centre of Ljubljana provided access to articles by the Service for Prevention and Control of Hospital-Acquired Infections. Some of the keywords used were: infections/okužbe, most common hospital-acquired infections/najpogostejše bolnišnične okužbe, management of hospital-acquired infections/obvladovanje bolnišničnih okužb, operating room/operacijska dvorana, prevention of hospital-acquired infections/preprečevanje bolnišničnih okužb, exposure/izpostavljenost. Results: Hospital-acquired infections are a significant challenge in operating rooms. A reduction in their number can be achieved through prevention and management, specifically by applying preventive measures also when patients have known hospital-acquired infections, by regular maintenance of the hygiene regime, through regular education and training of healthcare employees, as well as through regular controls. Discussion and conclusion: One of the most important indicators of quality is the incidence of hospital infections, which can be managed through prevention and care for patient safety. This is ensured by undertaking proper action in cases where a patient has a known hospital-acquired infection. This prevents the transmission of the infection to other patients who are undergoing or are about to undergo surgery. Measures for the prevention and reduction of hospital-acquired infections are well-known and generally easy to implement. The consistency of implementation measures is especially relevant for hand hygiene, which is a simple measure for reducing the transmission risk of hospital-acquired infections. The responsible behavior of all healthcare employees is especially important when a patient already has a known hospital-acquired infection.