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Možnosti pokrivanja porabe z električno energijo januarja 2017
AVBAR, BOŠTJAN (Avtor), Čepin, Marko (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

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Izvleček
Pričujoče magistrsko delo obravnava možnosti pokrivanja porabe z električno energijo v letošnjem januarju. Pri tem je rdeča nit dela predvsem električna energija, ki je pridobljena iz obnovljivih virov energije. Namen je torej, da preverimo ali v elektroenergetskih sistemih držijo podatki o velikem deležu električne energije, pridobljene iz OVE. Na primeru januarja 2017 je hkrati namen pokazati, da v sušnih mesecih, ko primanjkuje vode za hidroelektrarne, v obdobjih, ko manj piha veter in pozimi, ko manj sije sonce, nikakor ne moremo računati na OVE, kot se to kaže v energetskih napovedih. V začetku dela so najprej opisani diagrami porabe in proizvodnje električne energije ter njihove splošne značilnosti. Predstavljene so tudi možnosti za pokrivanje dnevnega diagrama porabe, ki temeljijo predvsem na razmerah, ki veljajo v slovenskem elektroenergetskem omrežju. Sledi predstavitev teoretičnih osnov stabilnosti elektroenergetskega omrežja, kjer so opisane tri glavne vrste, to so kotna, frekvenčna in napetostna stabilnost. V nadaljevanju dela je v sklopu analize predstavljeno stanje energetike v letošnjem prvem koledarskem mesecu. Za dve državi, Slovenijo in Nemčijo, so prikazani podatki o deležih, ki so jih posamezni proizvodni viri prispevali k skupni proizvodnji električne energije ter pokrivanju porabe v mesecu januarju 2017. Obravnavani mesec so zaznamovale vremenske razmere, saj so bile temperature v večjem delu Evrope nižje od povprečnih, poleg tega je bilo v januarju tudi zelo malo padavin. To se je odražalo v nižji proizvodnji obnovljivih virov energije, kar pa posledično pomeni, da so nastalo luknjo v proizvodnji morali pokriti konvencionalni viri. Za lažjo predstavo, kako nizka ali visoka je bila proizvodnja električne energije posameznih elektrarn, so podatki za letošnji januar primerjani s podatki v enakem obdobju v letu 2016. V sklopu analize Nemčije je prikazana tudi problematika nekonstantne moči vetrnih in sončnih elektrarn, ki s tem ogrožajo stabilnost svojega in tudi omrežja sosednjih držav. Nato je opisana analiza modela v programskem paketu MATPOWER. Pri tem kot izhodiščno stanje za simulacije služi 39-vozliščni sistem IEEE Nova Anglija. Model je v nadaljevanju spremenjen tako, da vanj vključimo še obnovljive vire, skupna poraba in proizvodnja v sistemu pa se spreminjata skladno z izbranim dnevnim diagramom porabe. Simuliramo torej različna stanja v sistemu, ki sledijo poteku dnevnega diagrama porabe, pri tem pa spreminjamo še moči vključenih obnovljivih virov energije. Sledi predstavitev rezultatov izvedenih simulacij, kjer sem opazoval, kako obnovljivi viri vplivajo na spremembe pretokov moči, izgube ter napetosti v posameznih delih omrežja. Pri tem je izhodiščno stanje s samimi konvencionalnimi viri primerjano s stanji, ko so vključene različne moči vetrnih elektrarn. V zaključku sledi komentar in obrazložitev dobljenih rezultatov, ki so potrdili moja predhodna pričakovanja. Torej, OVE v letošnjem januarju niso prispevali veliko k pokrivanju porabe električne energije. Na primerih Slovenije in Nemčije je opazna predvsem nižja proizvodnja hidroelektrarn in vetrnih elektrarn, kar je posledica slabih hidroloških razmer ter manjše prevetrenosti v obravnavanem mesecu. V obeh primerih so nadpovprečno proizvodnjo beležili konvencionalni viri, zlasti termoelektrarne, ki so morale pokriti nastalo luknjo v proizvodnji zaradi OVE. Predstavljeni rezultati simulacij tudi pričakovano prikazujejo, da stohastičnost proizvodnje iz OVE, posledično povzroča velike spremembe v pretokih moči in izgubah po vodih. Hkrati se v posameznih delih sistema pojavijo tudi večja nihanja napetosti. Vse to so spremembe, ki jih mora sistem prenesti oziroma se nanje prilagoditi, ter negativno vplivajo na delovanje in stabilnost celotnega EES.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:poraba, proizvodnja, obnovljivi viri energije, pretoki moči, stabilnost
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Organizacija:FE - Fakulteta za elektrotehniko
Leto izida:2017
Število ogledov:345
Število prenosov:350
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
 
Skupna ocena:(0 glasov)
Vaša ocena:Ocenjevanje je dovoljeno samo prijavljenim uporabnikom.
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Possibilities of supply of electric energy in January 2017
Izvleček:
This Master thesis discusses the possibility of covering electricity consumption in January 2017. The silver line of the thesis is particularly electricity, derived from renewable energy sources. The purpose is therefore to check whether the electricity systems hold data on a large share of electricity generated from renewable energy sources. In the case of January 2017, the purpose is also to show that in the drought months, when water is lacking for hydroelectric power plants, in periods when the wind blows less and in winter, when sun shines less, we can not count on renewable energy sources in any way, as shown in the energy forecasts. The beginning of the thesis describes diagrams of electricity consumption and production and their general characteristics. The possibilities of covering the daily consumption diagram, which are mostly based on conditions, applying in the Slovenian electricity network, are presented. This is followed by a presentation of theoretical backgrounds of the electricity network stability with a description of three main types: the rotor angle, frequency and voltage stability. Later on, the analysis within the thesis presents the state of energetics in this years’ first calendar month. For two countries, Slovenia and Germany, it presents the data about rates, contributed by individual production sources to the total energy production and the consumption coverage in January 2017. The discussed month was marked by weather conditions, since the temperature in most of Europe was lower than average, and in addition, there was very little precipitation in January. This was reflected in lower production of renewable energy sources, which consequently means, that the hole in production needed to be covered with conventional sources. To illustrate, how low or high the production of electricity by individual power plants was, the data for January 2017 were compared with the data of January 2016. As part of the analysis of Germany, the problem of inconsistent power of wind and solar plants, which endanger the stability of their own network as well as the networks of neighboring countries, is also presented. In continuation, the analysis of the model with the software MATPOWER is described. As a starting situation for simulations serves the IEEE New England 39-bus system. The model is further modified, so that we can also include renewable sources, but the total consumption and production in the system change in accordance with the selected daily consumption diagram. We thus simulate different states in the system, which follow the course of the daily consumption diagram, while we also change the power of the included renewable energy sources. This is followed by the presentation results of the executed simulations, where we observed, how renewable sources affect the changes is the power flow, losses and voltage in individual parts of the network. The starting state with conventional sources is compared to states, when the different power of wind plants is included. The conclusion provides a commentary and explanation of the obtained results, which proved my previous expectations. So, in January this year, renewable energy sources did not contribute much to covering the consumption of electricity. In cases of Slovenia and Germany, lower production of hydroelectric power plants and wind farms is evident, as a result of poor hydrological conditions and minor overtaking in the current month. In both cases, above-average production was recorded by conventional sources, in particular thermal power plants, which had to cover the resulting hole in the production due to renewable energy sources. The presented results of the simulations also anticipate that the stochastic production of renewable energy sources, consequently causes major changes in power flows and losses on the lines. At the same time, there are also higher voltage fluctuations in individual parts of the system. These are all the changes that the system has to pass or adapt to, and negatively affect to the operation and stability of the entire power system.

Ključne besede:consumption, production, renewable energy sources, load flow, stability

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